Linkers en inglés B2 FCE/C1 CAE

Contrast linkers in English

In spite of / Despite 
Link two contrasting ideas. Followed by a noun phrase.
Despite leaving early we missed the train
We enjoyed the holiday in spite of the rain.

Although / (Even) though 
Link two contrasting ideas. Followed by a sentence. 
Even though many scientists believe in quantum theory, a small group disagree.

However / Nevertheless / Still /Yet / Even so / On the contrary / In contrast to
Introduce a new idea which marks a contrast with previously stated ideas. Introduced by a comma. 
In contrast to popular opinion, it seems likely that our extinction is close at hand.

On the one hand … On the other hand.
Links two contrasting ideas / paragraphs. 

Whereas 
Link two contrasting ideas. Not separated by commas. 
I like boys whereas Pedro likes girls.

Reason and Cause

Because / As / Since / Seeing that 
Introduce a concept, idea, rebuff.
Since it is well known that English is an important language, many people study it.

Because of / On account of / Owing to / Due to.
Introduce a noun phrase, consequence. 
Flights have been cancelled due to the weather.

Purpose

In order to / So as to 
Introduce an infinitive of purpose/reason.
A questionnaire was created so as to gather opinions.

Consequence

Consequently / As a consequence / As a result / Therefore / As a consequence of / As a result of – Followed by a noun phrase. 
As a consequence of recent weather all local trains have been cancelled.

Addition

Moreover / Furthermore / In addition / Besides / What’s more 
Used after a strong pause and separated from the sentences. They are introduced by a comma. 
Most people dislike politics, what’s more many actively disengage from it.

As well as / In addition to / Besides 
Used to add  one more piece of information. Followed by a noun phrase. 
As well as questioning students, teachers and other members of staff were approached.

Exemplification

For example / For instance 
Introduces an example referring to previously stated ideas. 

Such as 
Introduces an example referring to the last idea.
I like lots of types of music, such as rap.

 

Cómo aprender más palabras en inglés – todos niveles

Learning new English words is essential not only for the exam, but to help your speech sound more natural and fluent. The wrong word, or word form, dropped by mistake into a conversation can be at best confusing, and at worst embarrassing.

Reading books for pleasure and learning English
All English is here…

Secret to success!

Reading

Whether in the classroom or in everyday life the printed page is a treasure trove of vocabulary of all types. If your teacher sets a reading exercise for homework don’t simply answer the task questions, use the opportunity to look up any words that you don’t recognise and pay attention to other structures such as verb/noun patterns, collocations etc.

Vocabulary can be split into certain groups, and keeping a written record of these groups will really help when it comes to revision for an exam or any occasion when you need to communicate in English.

Word groups

Keep groups simple so it is easier to remember them, and group them as follows.

GeneralTopic based nouns/verbs/phrasal verbs – examples,
Topic – Technology, online forum, download, look up etc.

General – object nouns – examples, power tool, blusher, waistband etc.

General – phrasal verbs/idioms/collocations – examples, set out, talk of the town, bitter disappointment etc

Word Families – examples, memory (n), memorise (v), memorable (adj.) etc.

Verb Patterns – examples, depend on + ing., decide + inf., used to + ing., etc.

Noun Patterns – examples, difference between, contrast to, etc.

Connectors/Linkers – examples, in spite of + ing/noun, nevertheless + ing etc.

All of these types are found in all forms of written English, but to find as many new words as possible read different types of text, for example scientific articles, fashion magazine articles, narrative fiction, newspapers stories, technical instructions, etc. In the classroom most reading exercises are taken from a wide variety of sources, but you can help yourself and use the internet which has billions of texts, for free.

How to quickly check the meaning of a word, phrasal verb or idiom in English

Very easily, simply enter the word followed by definition into Google and you should be given not only the definition but also synonyms, antonyms etc.

For an even easier way to check the meaning of a general noun simply type the word into Google search followed by the word images.

Vocabulario – B1/B2 adjectives for rented housing

Below is typical English vocabulary used by Real Estate Agents to describe rental properties.

Character
Traditional
Charming
Chic
Contemporary
Modern
Light
Spacious
Well proportioned
Well appointed rooms
Compact
Spectacular
Central location
City living
Easy walking distance
Amenities etc. on your doorstep
Ample parking
Short term/long term lease

Vocabulario inglés – celebrity

English vocabulary for Celebrity, B2 level.

Nouns
Fame
Infamy (-)
Glamour
Glitz
Gossip
Stardom
Starlet
Star
Celebrity
Icon
Role model
Gold digger

Phrases and expressions
boy band/girl group
a male/female band who often just sing and dance

to be destined for stardom
to have a high chance of becoming famous

rising star
becoming famous

talent shows
contests involving people with skills like singers

to have a bright future ahead of them
their later life will be positive

to be an overnight success
to become famous very quickly and gain lots of attention

to become famous almost overnight
to get fame very quickly

to be a household name
a famous person whose name is well-known

at his/her peak
when he/she was most famous/creative/productive

newspaper gossip columns
sections in a newspaper for rumours about famous people

the rumour mill
when gossip is spread

to dry up
work, talent to decrease to zero

time will tell
the result/conclusion can only be seen at a later date in a career

big break
to be discovered and become famous

one trick pony/one hit wonder
able to do only one thing

victim of own success
to have problems because of fame

claim to fame
reason for fame

Vocabulario – B1/B2 Concerts

Here you can find English vocabulary related to concerts and performance. It is useful for both the speaking and writing parts of the exam, and of course in everyday life.

Performer
Artist
Recording artist
(Record label, record deal)
Band
Group

Open air concert
Music festival
A spectacle
An extravaganza

Audience
Concert goers
Fans
Groupies

Backstage
Backstage pass/VIP pass
Roadies
Sound engineer
Lighting engineer
Sound check
Rehearsal
Run through

Vocabulario – Phrasal Verbs – B1 PET

Come across – find by chance/seem
I came across a nice hotel by the beach.
Raquel comes across as a nice girl.

Come up – unexpected problem 
I was going to the cinema but something came up and now I can’t go.

Come down with – catch an illness
Mum has come down with the flu.

Come intoinherit money
My grandmother died and I’ve come into some money.

Come outmake public
The latest lady Gaga album has come out.

Come by – acquire by chance
I came by a lovely second hand car last week and bought it.

Put up – erect
Dad put up the tent at the campsite.

Put up with – tolerate
I won’t put up with bad behaviour in class.

Put bysave
I put by a little money every month for Christmas.

Put down – insult
The teacher really put me down in class!

Look up – search information
I often look up information online or in a dictionary.

Look for – Search
I’ve been looking for the perfect man all my life.

Look into – investigate
Police are looking into the crime.

Look out – be careful
Look out, there’s car coming!

Take offSuccess
The bike shop has really taken car off and we are getting rich!

Take after – Resemble/similar
I take after my mum, we’re both short and have blue eyes
.

Take over – accept responsibility
I was feeling sick and asked my colleague to take over my work
.

Turn in- go to bed
I’m turning in, see you in the morning.

Turn outan unexpected result
I thought it was going to rain but it turned out sunny.

Turn on – activate
Turn on the air-conditioning please.

Turn into – become something different
A Caterpillar turns into a butterfly.

Turn back – return
The rain was so bad we had to turn back.

Give upquit
I’ve given up smoking.