Expressing Purpose

to + inf. + something
I learn English to speak more fluently

so + obj./subj. pronoun + modal + clause
She trains hard so she can can win the race.

so that + obj./subj. pronoun + modal + clause
Carlos is on a diet so that he will lose weight.

so as + to + inf + clause
I finished work early so as to get home early.

so as not to + inf. + clause
I took an umbrella so as not to get wet in the rain.

to avoid + ing. + clause
I save money to avoid having money problems.

in order to + inf. + clause
She murders her husbands in order to inherit their money.

in order not to + inf. + clause
Clara doesn’t drink alcohol in order not to make a fool of herself at parties.

in case + subj. / obj. + clause
I am taking a coat in case it gets cold later.

Mixed Conditionals

The mixed conditional describes a hypothetical present result of an unreal past condition.

Conditionals are all about time.

2nd is in the present but uses the past to tell us it is hypothetical.
Condition – If I were younger, (present)
Result – I would look prettier (present).


3rd conditional is in the past and is again hypothetical.
Condition – If I had studied Medicine, (past)
Result – I would have been a Doctor. (past)


In mixed conditionals you can use any part of the conditional (condition/result) depending on when and what you are trying to say.

Example.

If I had studied Medicine, (3rd condition past) I would be a Doctor now (2nd result present).
If Raul we’re not so ugly, (2nd condition present) I would have married him (3rd result past).


Grammar
Structure of Mixed Third/ Second Conditional
In this type of mixed conditional sentence, the tense in the ‘if‘ clause is the past perfect, and the tense in the main clause is the present conditional.

If + Past Perfect, Present Conditional (would/wouldn’t + Verb (bare form))

For example:
If I had listened to your advice, I wouldn’t be in the mess. (but I didn’t and I am)
If he had checked the map, he wouldn’t be lost. (but he didn’t and he is lost now)
If I had gone to university, I would be a doctor now. (but I didn’t and now I clean hotels)


Using the Mixed Third/ Second Conditional
We use the mixed third/ second conditional to express that if something had been different in the past there would be a present result.

For example:
If you had taken my advice, you wouldn’t be so unhappy now. (but you didn’t and you are still married to that horrible, lying, cheating evil bitch)

Mixed Second/ Third Conditional
The mixed conditional describes a hypothetical past result of an unreal present or continuing condition.

Structure of Mixed Second/ Third Conditional
In this second type of mixed conditional sentence, the tense in the ‘if‘ clause is the simple past, and the tense in the main clause is the perfect conditional.

If + Past Simple, Perfect Conditional (would/wouldn’t + have + Past Participle.

For example:
If I were a good cook, I would have invited them to dinner. (but I’m not and I didn’t)
If you weren’t such a poor dancer, you would have got a job in the chorus line in that musical. (but you are and you didn’t get the job)

Using the Mixed Second/ Third Conditional
We use the mixed second/ third conditional to express that due to certain present conditions something already happened in the past.

For example:
If you were a better cook, that meal would have been edible! (but you’re not and it was horrible)

Note
In these mixed conditional sentences, you can also use modals in the main clause instead of would to express the degree of certainty, permission, or a recommendation about the outcome.

For example:
If he had enough money, he could have done this trip to Hawaii.
If he’d gone to university, he might have a better job.

Informal ways of speaking

Common phrases to ask how someone is:
What’s up?
What’s new?
What have you been up to lately?
How’s it going?
How are things?
How’s life?


Common phrases to say how you are:
I’m fine, thanks. How about you?
Pretty good.
Same as always
Not so great.
Could be better

Cant complain

Common phrases to say thank you:
I really appreciate it.
I’m really grateful
That’s so kind of you.
I owe you one. (this means you want/need to do a favor for the other person in the future)


Common phrases to respond to thank you:
No problem.
No worries
Don’t mention it.
My pleasure.
Anytime.

Common phrases to end a conversation politely:
It was nice chatting with you.
Anyway, I should get going.

Common phrases to ask for information:
Do you have any idea…?
Would you happen to know…?
I don’t suppose you (would) know…?

Common phrases to say I don’t know:
I have no idea/clue.
I can’t help you there.
(informal) Beats me.
I’m not really sure.
I’ve been wondering that, too.

Common phrases for not having an opinion:
I’ve never given it much thought.
I don’t have strong feelings either way.
It doesn’t make any difference to me.
I have no opinion on the matter.

Common phrases for agreeing:
Exactly.
Absolutely.
That’s so true.
That’s for sure.
I agree 100%
I couldn’t agree with you more.
(informal) Tell me about it! / You’re telling me!
(informal) I’ll say!
I suppose so. (use this phrase for weak agreement – you agree, but reluctantly)

Common phrases for disagreeing:
I’m not so sure about that.
That’s not how I see it.
Not necessarily

Common phrases to respond to great news:
That’s great!
How wonderful!
Awesome!

Common phrases to respond to bad news:
Oh no…
That’s terrible.
Poor you. (Use this to respond to bad situations that are not too serious)
I’m so sorry to hear that.

Common phrases to invite someone somewhere:
Are you free… [Saturday night?]
Are you doing anything… [Saturday night?]
(informal) Do you wanna… [see a movie?]
(formal)Would you like to… [join me for dinner?]

Common phrases for food:
I’m starving! (= I’m very hungry)
Let’s grab a bite to eat.
How about eating out tonight? (eat out = eat at a restaurant)
I’ll have… (use this phrase for ordering in a restaurant)

Common phrases for price:
It cost a fortune.
It cost an arm and a leg.
That’s a rip-off. (= overpriced; far more expensive than it should be)
That’s a bit pricey.
That’s quite reasonable. (= it’s a good price)
That’s a good deal. (= a good value for the amount of money)
It was a real bargain.
It was dirt cheap. (= extremely inexpensive)
What’s the damage? (how much)

Common phrases for weather:
It’s a little chilly.
It’s freezing. (= extremely cold)
Make sure to bundle up. (bundle up = put on warm clothes for protection against the cold)

Common phrases for hot weather:
It’s absolutely boiling! (boiling = extremely hot)
it scorching hot outside

Common phrases for being tired:
I’m exhausted.
I’m dead tired.
I’m beat
I can hardly keep my eyes open
I’m gonna hit the sack. (hit the sack = go to bed)
I’m knackered.

Expressions with Time

a devil of a time: something difficult

a legend in one’s own time: one who gains renown within his or her lifetime (also inspired “a legend in (one’s) own mind,” referring to an egotistical person who believes himself or herself to be more significant than he or she actually is)

a matter/question of time: said in reference to a state that will soon change

a rare old time: an enjoyable experience

a race against time: said of trying to accomplish something critical in a short time frame

a stitch in time: the first half of a proverb (ending with “saves nine” and with an obscure origin) that refers to the wisdom of taking precaution

a whale of a (good) time: an especially exciting or fun experience
ahead of time: before the agreed time

ahead of (one’s) time: said of someone or something that has an innovative approach or style or one that the world is not ready for

all in good time: an expression that encourages patience

all the time in the world: an unlimited amount of time

all the time: in addition to referring to habitual or continuous occurrence, can refer to knowing about something throughout a given period

at a set time: at the agreed time

at all times: always

at no time: never

at the appointed time: at the agreed time

bad time: an inconvenient moment or an unfortunate experience

before (one’s) time: said of something that existed or occurred before one was born or when one was too young to recall that thing, or said in reference to someone’s unexpectedly early death

behind its time/the times: late, not keeping up, or obsolete

bide (one’s) time: be patient

big-time operator: someone who is or thinks he or she is important or influential

big-time spender: one who spends a lot of money, or said ironically about a frugal person

borrowed time: an uncertain amount of time, at the end of which something will no longer exist or occur

buy time: postpone an event for one’s advantage

by the time: said in reference to a time after something else has occurred

caught in a time warp: unchanged in an antiquated or obsolete way

crunch time: a critical period

face time: time spent in someone else’s company

for the time being: for now

from time to time: occasionally

do (the) time: serve time in jail or prison

down time: rest period

get the time: become available

give (one) a hard time: be critical

good-time Charlie: one who seeks pleasure

good times: pleasant experiences

hardly have time to breathe: said when one is busy

have a time of it: experience difficulty

having quite a time: having a pleasurable experience, or having difficulty

have time on (one’s side): don’t have to hurry

I’ll catch you some other time: I’ll talk to you later when it’s more convenient for you

in next to no time: almost instantly

in the fullness of time: after enough time passes

in the right place at the right time: in a figurative sense, fortuitously prepared for some eventuality; also, literally, located in a position that is advantageous or fortunate

it’s about time: said to express impatience, or relief that something has finally occurred (usually accompanied by an exclamation point)

it’s high time: it is the appropriate time; one has waited long enough

keep time: maintain the beat in music

lose no time: do something immediately

make good time: proceed quickly or in a reasonable amount of time

make time for: set aside a period of time to accommodate someone or something

make up for lost time: catch up on time wasted or as a result of going slowly or not going at all

mark time: wait

not able to call (one’s) time (one’s) own: too busy

old-time: old-fashioned

on time: punctual

once upon a time: long ago

out of time: said in reference to no longer having time to do something

pass the time (of day) with: chat with

pressed for time: lacking enough time to do something

run that by me one more time: say that again

sands of time: a poetic reference to the passage of time as represented by sand in an hourglass

the big time: said in reference to achieving prominence in some endeavor

the time has come: the occasion is appropriate

the time of (one’s) life: a memorable experience

time and tide wait for no man: the world makes no allowance for one being late

time bomb: something that will inevitably result in a negative consequence

time flies: a reference to the fleeting nature of time

time is money: time is important because using it wisely or unwisely affects one’s ability to earn money

time on (one’s) hands: spare time

time out: in sports, a short period when play ceases; by extension, a break from activity (also used as the announcement of a request for a time out, as is time by itself)

(stuck in a) time warp: said in reference to observing something that or someone who appears outdated

time was: there was a time when

time’s a-wastin’: time is running out

time to hit the road: time to depart

time works wonders: the passage of time resolves problems

when the time is ripe: when the time is appropriate

withstand the test of time: endure

wouldn’t give (one) the time of day to: ignored

Animal Idioms

Ant in one’s pants
People who have ants in their pants are very restless or excited about something.

Eager beaver
The term eager beaver refers to a person who is hardworking and enthusiastic, sometimes considered overzealous.

Bee in one’s bonnet
Someone who has a bee in their bonnet has an idea which constantly occupies their thoughts.

Birds of a feather flock together
If two people are birds of a feather, they are very similar in many ways, so they naturally spend time together.

A dark horse
Someone who is more clever or skilful than anyone expects

A lone wolf
Someone who is not very social with other people

A guinea pig
Someone who is part of an experiment or trial

The travel bug
A very strong desire to travel

To have butterflies in your stomach
To be nervous

An early bird
A person who gets up early in the morning, or who starts work earlier than others.

A home bird
Somebody who prefers to spend his social and free time at home.

A busy bee
A busy, active person who moves quickly from task to task.

A lone bird/ wolf
Someone who prefers his won company or who has little social contact with others.

An odd bird/ fish
An eccentric person whose behavior or way of life is regarded as strange.

A rare bird
Somebody or something of a kind that one seldom sees.

A dog in the manger
A person who selfishly prevent others from using, enjoying or profiting from something even though he/ she cannot use or enjoy it himself.

A cold fish
Somebody who is not often moved by emotions, who is regarded as being hard and unfeeling.

A dark horse
Someone whose past is a mystery; a person who keeps their interests and ideas secret, especially someone who has a surprising ability or skill.

A lame duck
A person or enterprise (often a business) that is not a success and that has to be helped.

A sitting duck
An easy target.

Narrative Facial Gestures – C2

EYES/BROWS
his eyes widened
her eyes went round
her eyelids drooped
his eyes narrowed
his eyes lit up
his eyes darted
he squinted
she blinked
her eyes twinkled
his eyes gleamed
her eyes sparkled
his eyes flashed
his eyes glinted
his eyes burned with…
her eyes blazed with…
her eyes sparked with…
her eyes flickered with…
_ glowed in his eyes
the corners of his eyes crinkled
she rolled her eyes
he looked heavenward
she glanced up to the ceiling
she winked
tears filled her eyes
his eyes welled up
her eyes swam with tears
his eyes flooded with tears
her eyes were wet
his eyes glistened
tears shimmered in her eyes
tears shone in his eyes
her eyes were glossy
he was fighting back tears
tears ran down her cheeks
his eyes closed
she squeezed her eyes shut
he shut his eyes
his lashes fluttered
she batted her lashes
his brows knitted
her forehead creased
his forehead furrowed
her forehead puckered
a line appeared between her brows
his brows drew together
her brows snapped together
his eyebrows rose
she raised a brow
he lifted an eyebrow
his eyebrows waggled
she gave him a once-over
he sized her up
her eyes bored into him
she took in the sight of…
he glared
she peered
he gazed
she glanced
he stared
she scrutinized
he studied
she gaped
he observed
she surveyed
he gawked
he leered
his pupils (were) dilated
her pupils were huge
his pupils flared
NOSE
her nose crinkled
his nose wrinkled
she sneered
his nostrils flared
she stuck her nose in the air
he sniffed
she sniffled
MOUTH
she smiled
he smirked
she grinned
he simpered
she beamed
her mouth curved into a smile
the corners of his mouth turned up
the corner of her mouth quirked up
a corner of his mouth lifted
his mouth twitched
he gave a half-smile
she gave a lopsided grin
his mouth twisted
she forced a smile
he faked a smile
her smile faded
his smile slipped
he pursed his lips
she pouted
his mouth snapped shut
her mouth set in a hard line
he pressed his lips together
she bit her lip
he drew his lower lip between his teeth
she nibbled on her bottom lip
he chewed on his bottom lip
his jaw set
her jaw clenched
his jaw tightened
a muscle in her jaw twitched
he ground his jaw
he snarled/his lips drew back in a snarl
her mouth fell open
his jaw dropped
her jaw went slack
he gritted his teeth
she gnashed her teeth
her lower lip trembled
his lower lip quivered
SKIN
she paled
he blanched
she went white
the color drained out of his face
his face reddened
her cheeks turned pink
his face flushed
she blushed
he turned red
she turned scarlet
he turned crimson
a flush crept up her face
WHOLE FACE, etc.
he screwed up his face
she scrunched up her face
he grimaced
she winced
she gave him a dirty look
he frowned
she scowled
he glowered
her whole face lit up
she brightened
his face went blank
her face contorted
his face twisted
her expression closed up
his expression dulled
her expression hardened
she went poker-faced
a vein popped out in his neck
awe transformed his face
fear crossed her face
sadness clouded his features
terror overtook his face
recognition dawned on her face

Narrative Gestures – C2

he lowered his head
she hung her head
he ducked
she bowed her head
he covered his eyes with a hand
she pressed her hands to her cheeks
she raised her chin
he lifted his chin
her hands squeezed into fists
his hands tightened into fists
she clenched her fists
she balled her fists
he unclenched his fists
her arms remained at her sides
he shrugged
she gave a half shrug
he lifted his shoulder in a half shrug
she gave a dismissive wave of her hand
she raised a hand in greeting
he waved
she held up her hands
he lifted his hands
she held up her palms
he threw his hands in the air
she brushed her palms together
he rubbed his hands together
she made a steeple of her fingers
he spread his hands
she gesticulated
he waved his hands
she clapped her hands
he snapped his fingers
she held up a finger
he pointed
she gestured with a thumb
he jerked his thumb toward…
she extended her middle finger toward him
he gave her the finger
she gave him the thumbs up
she put her hands on her hips
she shoved her hands in her pockets
he jammed his hands in his front pockets
she rested a hand on her hip
she jutted out her hip
she folded her arms
he crossed his arms over his chest
she hugged herself
he wrapped his arms around himself
she rocked back and forth
she spread her arms wide
he held out his arms
she held out her hand
he extended a hand
he shook his head
she nodded
he bobbed his head
she tilted her head
he cocked his head
she inclined her head
he jerked her head in the direction of…
she turned her face away
he looked away
his breaths quickened
0she panted
she was breathing hard
his chest rose and fell with rapid breaths
she took in a deep breath
he drew in a long breath
she took in a sharp breath
he gasped
she held her breath
he let out a harsh breath
she exhaled
0he blew out his cheeks
she huffed
he sighed
she snorted
she laughed
he giggled
she guffawed
he chuckled
she gave a bitter laugh
he gave mirthless laugh
she tittered
he cackled
she rubbed her shoulder
he kneaded his shoulder
he rolled his shoulders
she tensed her shoulders
he massaged the back of his neck
she rubbed her temples
she rubbed her hands on her thighs
she ran her hand through her hair
he threaded a hand through his hair
he raked his fingers through his hair
he shoved his hair back away from his face
she toyed with a lock of hair
she played with her hair
she twirled her hair
she wrapped a curl around her finger
she tucked a lock of hair behind her ear
she undid her ponytail and shook out her hair
she tossed her hair
he buried his hands in his hair
he stroked his beard
he scratched his beard
she tugged at her earlobe
he bit a nail
she chewed on a cuticle
she picked at her nails
she inspected her fingernails
he plucked at the cuff of his shirt
she picked a piece of lint from her sleeve
he adjusted the lapels of his jacket
she fiddled with her earring / bracelet
he twisted the wedding ring on his finger
she played with her cell phone
he tugged at his shirt collar
he adjusted his tie
she smoothed down her skirt
she scratched her nose
he scratched his head
he rubbed his forehead
she rubbed her eyes
she pinched the bridge of her nose
he held his nose
she slapped her forehead
he smacked his forehead
he facepalmed
he slapped a hand over her mouth
she covered her mouth with her hand
she pressed her fingers to her lips
he held his finger up to his lips
he rubbed his chin
she pressed a hand to her throat
he clutched his chest
he leaned against the wall
she bounced on her toes
she jumped up and down
he tapped his foot
she stomped her foot
she folded her hands in her lap
she drummed her fingers on the table
he tapped his fingers on the table
he slammed his hand on the table
she pounded her fist on the table
she set her palms down flat on the table
he rested his hands on the table
she set her hands on the table, palms up
he leaned back in his chair
she hooked her feet around the chair legs
he gripped the arm of the chair
she put her hands behind her head
he put his feet on the desk
he fidgeted
she jiggled her foot
he swung his leg
she crossed her legs
he uncrossed his legs
she crossed her ankles in front of her
she stretched out her legs in front of her
he sprawled out
he put his feet on the desk
she cringed
he shuddered
she flinched
he shivered
she trembled
his body shook
she cowered
he shrank from…
she huddled in the corner
he pulled away
she jerked away
he turned away
she jolted upright
he stiffened
she straightened
he tensed
he jumped
she jumped to her feet
he stood up
she rose from her seat
she relaxed
he hunched
she slouched
her shoulders sagged
his shoulders slumped
she wilted
he went limp
he rolled his shoulders
she squared her shoulders
she clasped her hands behind her back
he puffed out his chest
she thrust out her chest
he propped his chin on his hand
she rested her chin on her palm
he yawned
she stretched
he turned around
she whirled around
he pivoted
she reeled
she stepped away
she drew nearer
he leaned closer
she inched forward
he loomed closer
he paced
she shifted from one foot to the other
he swayed on his feet
she dragged her feet
she pumped a fist
he thrust his fists in the air
she punched the air

Cómo escribir un ensayo – parte dos

In the First exam the writing consists of two parts. Here we look at Part 1, the compulsory essay.

Strategy
a – Read the task carefully and underline the keywords.
Ex. Write an opinion essay based on the statement – Experiments that cause suffering to animals can never be justified.

b – Make a note of the register you need to use – typically it will be semi-formal or neutral.

c – Write a short list of grammatical structures you should use.
Ex. passive, impersonal passive for general beliefs, perf. tenses for past, pres. simple for your opinion.

d – Write a short vocabulary list, try to include abstract nouns, fixed phrases and collocations.
Ex. experimentation, advances in medical research, human/clinical trials, medicine, play God.

e – Group ideas into 4 logical paragraphs. [see structure below]

f – Write an appropriate title. Rephrase the words in the task, use a question to engage the reader.
Ex. Is it ever justifiable to inflict suffering on animals for human benefit?

g – Begin your writing and remember to check that you are using the grammatical structures and vocabulary you made a note of earlier.

h – Read through your work and correct any errors with grammar, spelling and punctuation. Check verb patterns/dependent prepositions.
Ex. depends + on, look + into, appears + to

i – Ask yourself….
Do your ideas flow logically?
Have you answered the task and not gone off topic?


Structure
Para 1. Introduction with brief background.
General beliefs in past and in present about experimentation – in brief.

Para 2. Arguments for.
Advances in medical research and human health.

Para 3. Arguments against.
Animal welfare, animal rights, cruelty.

Para 4. Summary + your opinion
Use fixed phrases to summarise both for & against and state your opinion.

Language suggestions
Use strong adjectives for your opinions.
Ex. intolerable, inhuman, unjustifiable, wholly justifiable, perfectly acceptable

Use correct collocations,
Ex. conduct + experiments, research + findings, cause + suffering

You can easily check on Google
In Search enter > research + collocations – easy!

Examples of basic collocations
Advantage / Benefit (+) or Disadvantage / Drawback (-)
main / most obvious / key / the biggest / the greatest / the most important / the least important (dis)advantage of animal experimentation is…

another / a further / an additional / one more (dis)advantage of animal experimentation is…

Formas de hablar

speak: make use of words in a normal voice.
May I speak to George?

talk: speak to give information, say things.
What are they talking about?

hesitate: be slow to speak (or act) because one is uncertain or unwilling to talk.
He hesitated before answering my question.

whisper: speak softly, without vibrating the vocal cords, privately or secretly.
She whispered the secret word in my ear.

hiss: say something in a loud whisper. (Snakes also hiss).
‘Get out!’ she hissed at me furiously.

mumble: speak unclearly, so that others can’t hear.
He mumbled something at me which I didn’t understand.

mutter: speak in a low voice, which is hard to hear.
She was muttering something to herself as she went out.

murmur: speak in a soft, quiet voice that is difficult to hear clearly.
The classmates murmured during the test.

hum: make a low continuous sound, when you take a long time deciding what to say.
She hummed at the beginning of the oral exam.

grunt: make short sounds or say a few words in a rough voice, when you don’t want to talk. (Pigs also grunt).
She grunted a few words and left the table.

stammer: speak with pauses and repeating the same sound or syllable, habitually or from fear or excitement.
P-p-please give me the p-p-pen,’ he stammered.

stutter: stammer.
P-p-please give me the p-p-pen,’ he stuttered.

quaver: speak tremulously, because you are nervous or upset.
Her voice quavered for a moment but then she regained control.

lisp: speak with /th/ sounds instead of /s/ sounds.
You’re very thilly, Thimon. (You’re very silly, Simon.)

babble = gabble = gibber = jabber: talk foolishly, in a way difficult to understand.
Her fever made her babble without stopping.

ramble: talk continuously, in a confused way.
Stop rambling and get to the point, please!

slur: speak unclearly, without separating the words correctly.
He was so drunk that he slurred to the bartender for more.

chat: have a friendly informal conversation.
They chatted away in the corner.

chatter: talk quickly and at length about something unimportant.
Please stop chattering, I’m trying to listen to the TV!

gossip: talk about the affairs of other people.
She was gossiping about her neighbours all day.

call: speak in a loud clear voice, shout, cry.
They called for help.

shout: speak in a loud voice, in anger or to get attention.
He had to shout because the music was too loud.

whoop: shout loudly and happily.
The children whooped when we entered the fair.

cry (out): make a sharp noise, in pain or surprise.
She cried out in terror when the old man appeared suddenly.

yell: cry out loudly, in fear, pain or excitement.
She yelled in terror when she saw the dead cat.

scream: cry out very loudly on a high note, in fear, pain, anger or laughter.
The baby was screaming the whole day.

shriek: scream.
The men shrieked with laughter.

bellow: shout in a deep voice.
The captain bellowed orders at the crew.

squeak: speak in a high-pitched voice.
She squeaked out a few words nervously.

squeal: speak in a high-pitched voice, with longer and louder sounds than in a squeak.
Let me go!’ she squealed.

whine: complain in a sad, annoying voice about something.
I don’t want to go,’ whined Peter.

chirp / chirrup (UK): speak in a happy high voice.
All finished!’ she chirped.

cheer: shout because of happiness.
The public cheered when the team appeared.

croak: speak with a deep hoarse voice.
She had such a terrible cold that she could only croak.

blurt out: say something suddenly and tactlessly.
She blurted out the bad news before I could stop her.

snap: say something quickly in an angry way.
‘What do you want?’ the waiter snapped.

splutter: talk quickly in short confused phrases, in anger or surprise.
But… what… where… how could you?’ she spluttered.

bark (out): say something quickly in a loud voice.
‘What do you want?’ the shop assistant barked.

Ensayo de opinión en inglés – B2/C1

An opinion essay is often the first part of the writing in the B2/C1 Exam. Here’s some tips to help you.

How to structure your opinion essay

Para.1. Basic, simple background that reflects the title and that speaks directly to the reader using a question.

Para. 2. A few examples of current opinion and thinking about topic related issues.

Para. 3. Contrasting information to para.2.

Para. 4. Your opinion, either agreeing or disagreeing with points in paragraphs 2/3.

Para. 5. Closing sentence.

Example paragraphs from opinion essay on Global Warming

Para. 1
Glance at any newsstand, switch on the TV, or listen to the radio and it seems we are heading towards an environmental apocalypse. Stories of melting ice caps, extreme weather patterns, and even the extinction of the human species are, it seems, fodder for our politicians and the media. But how true are they?

Para. 2
Let us begin by looking at some specific examples, beginning with deforestation. It is widely reported that… 

Para. 3
A number of solutions have been tried to tackle the above problems. Furniture made from sustainable forests is commonplace within Europe, governments urge us to recycle our household waste, and cycling to work as well as car sharing is actively encouraged. But is this enough?

Para. 4
Having examined the above issues it is my opinion that….

Para. 5
With so many conflicting opinions and statistics it seems we must wait and see for ourselves if current measures will avert the impending environmental Armageddon promised by so many. But by then it might be too late for mankind.

Register and vocabulary for your essay

The above example uses a semi-formal/neutral register but as discussed in another post (here) the level of formality will depend on the intended reader of the essay. As a general rule in B2 use a semi-formal register but a more formal and impersonal style in C1.

Vocabulary plays a vital role in getting the register right and is not as simple as using as many long Latin based words as possible as this hinders the rhythm and flow of your writing and increases formality, which might not be your intention.

In general use a mixture of vocabulary if writing in a semi formal style, for example in the first sentence of the preceding paragraph I chose the word vital rather than important but then used the low level verb get in continuous as well as the verb hinder, another higher level word choice, in the same sentence. If I had used all high level words the formality would be too high, and if too many low levels words the formality would have been too low. Everything is about balance, especially in semi-formal.

Read this for more help.

Getting the grammar right in your essay

Again, this is discussed in detail here, but as a general rule (the same as with vocabulary) a balanced mix of high and low level structures will give you the best result for a semi-formal essay. If you need to write at a higher level of formality use complex structures such as inversions, impersonal passives and perfect tenses, as well as high level linkers and connectors. You can learn about these here.

If you are in doubt the internet is a wonderful source of example material, however be careful, there are many poorly written examples online so choose carefully from well known sources such as Cambridge or Pearson, or academic papers related to the subject of your essay. Don’t copy or emulate influencer’s blogs, they may be clever at marketing themselves to the public but their level of English might not be the best.

Cómo escribir un informe de inglés – B2

Here’s some basic advice about how to write a good report in English.

First, structure it into 4 paragraphs and subheading or subtitle for each paragraph.

1. introduction – why/purpose of report.

Begin with a fixed English phrase.
Example
It is the aim/purpose/intention of this report to investigate/examine/look into the …

2. Current situation – including evidence (maybe results from a survey or assessment, using a bullet list).

Example
Students and staff were canvassed for their opinions using a questionnaire… The results were as follows,
– lack of …
– need for…
– etc…
(there are rules for how to write a good bullet list which will be the subject of a later post)

3. Proposed solution – including pro’s and con’s’.

Example
Whilst there are many advantages (see Current Situation), a potential and serious drawback is Staffing and Security within the IT Room… A possible solution would be…

4. Closing statement/Recommendation

Example
After careful and due consideration it is the opinion of the author that...

Tips
In general, once you have named the subject, for example ‘students‘ use impersonal passives to speak about them.

Example.
Students were asked to complete a questionnaire and from their opinions a number of factors were evident. 24 hour access to the IT room was thought to be the most important …..

A tip about word usage.
Remember – Short verbs in English are usually Celtic based and informal.

Examples
Get – informal
Receive – formal
Buy – informal
Purchase – formal

An easy way to know a formal form is to check a short verb in a dictionary and find a longer synonym or one that you recognise from Spanish. Generally longer words are are Latin based and more formal and so ideal for a report.

Examples
Get – obtain, acquire, receive
Write – transcribe

Vocabulary
Remember to use a variety of vocabulary and also specific vocabulary for the topic. Try to include synonyms rather than repeat a noun, verb or subject, and use abstract nouns to demonstrate concepts rather than only concrete facts. For example restitution, deconstruction, strength.

Use fixed phrases and expressions to sound natural but pay attention to prepositions.
Examples

In summary…
To sum up…
In light of…

A tip about grammar
Use the following structures to put distance/respect/formality into your writing.

Examples
passive/impersonal passive/impersonal passive infinitive
Students were asked to complete…

inversion
Had the facilities been accurately described…

Perfect tenses/Past perfect
Past forms of have had, will would, can could and should all add a subtle degree of formality to writing, so try to use them rather than short, present tense sentences which speak more directly to the reader.

Connectors
Sprinkle a handful of appropriate linkers/connectors into your report to add another layer of formality depending on the reader. Do not go overboard, or put too many.

Examples
But, although, however, in spite of + ing, despite + ing, nevertheless, while, whilst, on the one hand/on the other… etc.

Here’s a photo of the whiteboard from a B2 adult class – note the vernacular/colloquial English in the top left hand corner…tut…tut

Cláusulas relativas y participios en inglés

There are some simple rules in English for how to use present participle/past participle and relative pronouns with relative clauses.

First, relative clauses.

Type : Defining
Purpose : defines noun
Example
This is the shirt that I bought for €90, the rest were much cheaper.(that I bought for €90 identifies the shirt from many)

If the object of the verb in the clause (following the pronoun) is the same as the subject then the pronoun (and aux) can be taken out.
This is the shirt which is made for the typical tourist.

A non-defining relative clause is different.
Purpose: add extra info.
• between commas
• pronoun introduces clause
•• you cannot use that
Example
Many people in Spain, who live on the coast, were contacted for their opinion.

Without the extra info the sentence still makes sense (remember to take out the commas!).
Many people in Spain who live on the coast were contacted for their opinion.

Participle clauses
We are used to past participle in the passive.
The book was written by JK Rowling, and was very successful.

But we can simplify the passive.
The book was written by JK Rowling and was very successful.
But there has to be a clause after the participle.

Many cakes were being eaten. ✓
Many cakes being eaten. X
Many cakes being eaten at the party were horrible. ✓

Present participle clauses
An ing form without the verb to be is usually referred to as the present participle .
Swimming (present participle) is great fun.

We use it in active clauses, and a lot in relative clauses.
Look at this sentence with its pronouns.

The film which starred Brad pit and that was filmed in Japan was a wonderful experience.

Using past/present participle
The film, (comma) starring (present participle) Brad pit and filmed (past participle) in Japan was a wonderful experience.

We use participles to keep sentences simple and more fluid rhythmically.

Conectores formales – B2

When writing a semi formal or formal essay, report or article use these connectors…

Moreover – additional supporting evidence.

example

Studies show a an increase in social isolation as well as impaired interpersonal skills. Moreover, an American study published evidence supporting previous studies…

In addition to/additionally – supporting evidence.

example  

In addition to the survey’s findings it was also discovered that…

Therefore – consequence.

example  

Evidence gathered from our Student Survey suggests that current technology within the classroom is inadequate. I therefore recommend that….

Likewise – additional information.

example  

The study indicated a drop in intelligence. Likewise, exam results were also negatively affected.

Similarly – additional information.

example  

The study indicated a drop in intelligence. Likewise, exam results were also negatively affected.

However – contrasting evidence.

example  

The results of the survey were analysed and provided a clear indication of the negative impact of technology on the young. However, family background and upbringing were equally important.

Although – contrasting evidence.

example  

The results of the survey were analysed and provided a clear indication of the negative impact of technology on the young, although family background and upbringing were equally important.

Whereas – contrasting evidence.

example  

Whereas the results of the survey were analysed and provided a clear indication of the negative impact of technology on the young, it should be noted that they were not 100% reliable.

Despite/In spite of – contrasting evidence.

example  

Despite the results of the survey providing a clear indication of the negative impact of technology on the young, family background and upbringing were found to be equally important.

In fact – statement of fact opinion.

example  

The results of the survey were analysed and provided a clear indication of the negative impact of technology on the young, in fact there could be no doubt about the results. 

Indeed – reinforcement of fact.

example

 The results of the survey were analysed and provided a clear indication of the negative impact of technology on the young, indeed there could be no doubt about the results. 

Inmobiliaria -Vocabulario Inglés

vocabulario inglés por inmobiliaria

Buyer: that’s you!
Seller: someone who is selling their property, usually through an estate agent.
Vendor: this is another term for the seller.
First Time Buyer: an individual who has never bought or owned a property before. Renting a property does not count as buying or owning.
Freehold: a type of occupancy which means you own the building and the land it sits on.
Leasehold: this is where you own the property but not the land it is built on – for example, you may own a flat, but not the building it sits in.
Commonhold: an alternative system to leasehold usually in place in buildings or estates of multiple occupancy (such as a block of flats), whereby you own the freehold to your property, and all property owners collectively help manage the upkeep of the building or estate (such as all chipping in to repair part of the building).
Deposit: a set amount of money which acts to secure a purchase, usually at a low percentage of the full price. Paying this usually means you are committed to going through with a purchase and will pay the rest of the amount off later.
Mortgage: a loan of money used to pay for a property, which you pay back over time with interest to whoever lent you the money. The property itself is considered collateral, which means if you don’t keep up with your repayments, it can be seized and sold to make back the money.
Bridging loan: a temporary short-term loan which enables a buyer to purchase a property before selling their existing property.
Equity: equity, or capital, represents the amount of money a homeowner has put into a property. This value is built up over time as the owner pays off the mortgage and the market value of the property appreciates.
Surveyor: in the context of property, they are a qualified expert who specialises in examining and highlighting any potential issues or benefits within a property, that may affect its price or need fixing in future.
Building survey: a report into the physical state of the property, this is also sometimes referred to as a full structural survey.
Covenant: a covenant is a provision or promise that has been written into a deed which may affect or limit the use of the property or land. There are two different types of covenant, positive and restrictive. A positive covenant is an obligation which requires some form of action (such as maintain a fence or wall), whereas a restrictive covenant limits or prevents the use of land in a specified way.
Easement: an easement is the right of one landowner to make use of another nearby piece of land for the benefit of their own land, for example, a private right of way.
Chain: a chain is formed when several property sales and purchases are inter-dependent. A chain can be complicated but a good estate agent will be able to help keep it moving.
EPC: an Energy Performance Certificate (EPC) shows the efficiency of a property and gives an indication of how much the energy bills will cost. It is displayed as two graphs – the energy efficiency, and the environmental impact of the property. Each is graded from A (the best) to G (the worst).
Under offer: if a property is under offer it means that the seller has accepted an offer from the buyer but the contracts have not yet been exchanged.
Gazumping: when a higher offer is made by another party and is accepted, sometimes even after the offer with the first buyer has been accepted.
Gazundering: when a buyer lowers their offer price, usually at the last minute, so the seller has to accept the lower price or reject and risk having to find another buyer.
Exchange of contracts: the point where both parties are committed to the transaction; both the buyer and seller can walk away at any point before the contracts have been exchanged.
Conveyancer: a solicitor specialising in the transfer of home ownership. They are required if you are using a mortgage and will cover every legal aspect of the home purchasing process.
Solicitor: someone who deals professionally with legal matters, also known as a lawyer, and holds a recognised qualification or degree in law.
Title: the legal right of owning a property or land.
Deeds: Documents that show who owns the title of a property or land, along with any burdens (obligations/responsibilities) on the property e.g. what you can/cannot alter on the property, any access and rights of way on the property. Usually held by the mortgage lender until you pay off your property, where it can then be held by you or your solicitor.
Land Registry: the Government’s database of who owns what property and land. Be aware that there are separate registries for Scotland, Northern Ireland and the rest of the UK.
New Build: usually this refers to a property that hasn’t been purchased or lived in yet and has recently been built. However different banks and lenders have different definitions, which can vary from whether the property has been lived in, but not bought, whether it has been converted or refurbished, or whether it has been finished within a certain amount of years.
Completion date: when the transaction is complete and ownership of the property passes from the seller to the buyer. Normally, the vendor’s solicitor will ask the estate agent to release the keys to the buyer at this time.
Snagging: snagging is where the developer of new build properties touches up paintwork, adjusts appliances and fixes any other faults within the property. A snagging survey is usually completed prior to the buyer moving in, in order to spot minor cosmetic issues and check the quality of workmanship.
Standard Security: in Scotland, this is the form that confirms to your mortgage lender that they can repossess your home if you don’t keep up with your payments.
Stamp Duty: a lump-sum tax that anyone buying a property or land over a certain price in England, Northern Ireland and Wales must pay. The current threshold for residential properties is £125,000 and £150,000 for non-residential land and properties, however, the rate you pay will vary depending on the overall purchase price.
Land Transaction Tax: land tax replaced Stamp Duty in Wales from April 2018. Buyers looking to purchase in Wales will be charged land transaction tax on any residential purchase above £180,000 and above £150,000 for non-residential purchases, however, the price you pay varies depending on the overall cost of the property.
Land & Building Transaction Tax: the tax you pay when purchasing land or property in Scotland. The current threshold is £145,000 for residential properties and £150,000 for non-residential land and properties, however the rate payable is subject to the total purchase cost. 
Base rate: the interest rate which is set by the Bank of England for lending to other banks. It is generally used as a benchmark for the interest rates banks charge when lending money to customers.
Fixed-rate mortgage: with a fixed-rate mortgage, you pay a set rate of interest on your mortgage for a fixed period, so you know exactly what you’ll be paying each month.
Tracker mortgage: this is a mortgage with an interest rate linked to the Bank of England rate or another base rate. The interest rate will go up and down depending on this rate, irrespective of the mortgage lender.
Variable-rate mortgage: with a variable rate mortgage, the interest rate can change at any time. They are partly influenced by the Bank of England base rate but other factors come into play as well. The interest rate you pay on a variable rate mortgage can change even without base rate moving and similarly base rate might come down but your mortgage rate stays the same

Frases fijas y transformando el inglés informal al formal


Fixed phrases in English are very important, especially in writing but they are often formal or semi formal and can’t be used in all writing tasks. Do not confuse fixed phrases with phrasal verbs, many websites state that they are the same – they are not. Phrasal verbs are usually informal and are totally different to a fixed phrase.

Examples of fixed phrases include:

look forward to hearing from
– in summary/conclusion
– in my opinion
– to whom it may concern etc

But be careful… Consider the following sentences…

Fixed phrase – It is the aim of this report

1. Typical student usage
It is the aim of this report to see problems with computers in our school for students.

This sentence has a small error (incorrect verb – see) and the rest of the sentence after the fixed phrase is too informal (personal pronoun – our). In other words the register is not consistent.

2. Correct usage
It is the aim of this report to examine current IT issues, and challenges, at school.

The register is now consistent, semi formal. Also, look at how simple it is. There are only 2 prepositions, and 1 conjunction. It is redundant to put for students – who else goes to school?

The student’s example is spoken, informal and unsuitable because the fixed phrase is semi formal but the remainder of the sentence is not..

Look at this sentence, a typical informal example from a student
We will look at problems teachers experience.

Let’s make it formal…
1. Make passive.
Problems experienced by teachers will be looked at by us.

Make impersonal.
Problems experienced by teachers will be looked at.

3. Change vocabulary.
Issues, experienced by teaching staff, will be examined.

Perfect!

Now do that with every sentence in your formal report, essay, article or proposal.

Cómo escribir una crítica en inglés

como escribo una revista en inglés

Review Subject : Favourite TV show.
Audience : general public
Register : relaxed semi formal
Vocabulary : television, humour, horror etc., feelings, adjectives, nouns, fixed phrases.
Key Points: this changes depending on the Review Subject. For example there is no point talking about the score (music) in my example using The Simpsons.

Paragraph 1 – Grab the reader’s attention and introduce the Subject. Use a rhetorical question to engage your audience.

Have you ever sat at work counting the minutes until you can go home to watch your favourite TV show? This is my Tuesday and Thursday ritual, a quick goodbye to work colleagues followed by a mad dash home and thirty minutes of top notch entertainment and escapism. So what is it that has me flouting (Google it) the speeding laws? Quite possibly the funniest programme on TV right now – the Simpsons.

Paragraph 2
A review always contains some factual information or background. It shows you know your subject.

Created by Matt Groenig the Simpsons offers up a feast of slapstick comedy as it portrays the ups and downs of a typical dysfunctional American family. What makes this zany American sitcom different is the fact that it’s an animation – yes, a cartoon.

paragraph 3 – give more detail about one or two characters and highlight the script or acting etc.

The superbly crafted script is packed with one liners and and squeezes every single last drop of comedy gold from each word. The matriarch Marge steals the show….

paragraph 4 – Opinion
Say you like it and why others should see it.

I can’t praise this show highly enough – it truly is a “must see” for anyone who enjoys superb comedy.

Remember
• Vocabulary is your best friend.
• Use nouns and fixed phrases, also compound nouns/adjectives, example : overnight success, page-turner.
•Use simple structures but make them complex using vocabulary, adverbs, adjectives etc.

It takes time to write well in another language. Some people find it hard to write well in their native language.

Cómo escribir informalmente en inglés

How to write a great informal email or message.

We often talk about semi formal and formal writing but seldom informal. So here are some do’s and don’ts to keep in mind when writing an informal email, message or text

Do use idiomatic language, example raining cats and dogs
Do use colloquial vocabulary for objects, places, feelings.
Do use everyday adverbs, linkers etc, example but, also
Do use present tenses to keep your writing direct.
Do use past simple and past perfect to sequence a timeline of actions.
Do use paragraphs.
Do use contractions.
Do begin with Hi, and end with Bye!

Don’t use slang words, example innit, gunna. Though words like yeh, hi, nah are fine.
Don’t write overly long sentences with lots of commas.

Cómo escribir una propuesta en inglés

Vive la diferencia

The difference between a report and a proposal is in function rather than presentation. This is often referred to with a single sentence in class books, but it is very important and deserves more space.

Function

Report

The function of a report is to evaluate a current situation, including its pros and cons, and to formulate a recommendation or summary.

Imagine this as step 1 of a project.

A typical example.
The staff cafeteria in your company has become unpopular. Produce a report outlining any current issues and recommending relevant solutions.

Click here for more help with a report.

Proposal

A proposal’s function is evaluate a future project, with reference to a current or previous situation.

Imagine this as step 2 in a project.

Example
You recently compiled a report on current problems with your staff cafeteria and made certain recommendations. Produce a detailed proposal for how these recommendations can be put into practice.

Form

A report and a proposal look very similar, typically 4-5 paragraphs, with headings and sub headings. They can also both use bullet points, though I would not use a numbered list in a proposal,

Examples of headings..
It is the aim of this report to investigate… Report
It is the purpose of this proposal to examine… Proposal
Current situation… Report
Background… Proposal
Etc.

Style and language

Usually semi formal or formal. Language, grammar and vocabulary, should be appropriate. Click here for help.

cómo transformar oraciones en B1 PET y B2 FCE

Transforming sentences in English, for the Cambridge English exams, is very difficult, but a simple strategy really helps.

Certain word types are very important in B1 sentence transformations, such as adverbs and phrasal verbs, whilst in FCE dependent prepositions, verb patterns and high level grammatical structures are tested. Click here to access our free FCE Use of English Practice tests (students only).

With transformations you need to follow some simple steps to make sure the sentences mean the same.

Step 1

Deconstruct and understand the meaning of the first sentence. You cannot get a correct answer unless you understand the first sentence.

To understand the sentence is like running a short computer programme in your brain. You just need to use it and get used to it.

1. What is the time?
This is the most important thing you should be sure of. Only in reported speech will you need to change time in the second sentence. Your verb times must be exactly the same.

example (FCE)
David found it hard to concentrate. Time – past simple
Pay
David finds it hard to pay attention. Time – present simple NO
David found it hard to pay attention. Time – past simple YES

2. What is the grammar, vocabulary?
There are clues in the second sentence, in B1 PET is there a verb in the second sentence? If no then most likely you are being tested for grammar. If there is a verb then maybe you need vocabulary, a phrasal verb for example.

example
There are two lions at the zoo.
The zoo has two lions.

In B2 FCE look at the word given, if it’s a preposition then most likely you need a phrasal verb. If it’s a verb then a verb pattern or grammar point is being tested.

example
My dad collected me from the airport.
up
My dad picked me up from the airport.

3. What is the subject/object?
This is often not important, except if being tested for reported speech or the passive.

4. What is duplicated?
You must do this as it will tell you only the words you need to transform, see the example below to understand what to do.

5. Is your answer logical?
Does your answer follow the typical structures in English? Is there a missing preposition? Do not try to translate it into Spanish – think only in English and remember the basics!

If the answer to 5 is No then go back to question 1 and do it all again.

If the answer is yes then you probably have it correct.

So here’s a simple B2 FCE transformation.

I don’t spend much money on clothes.
any
I ____________________ money on clothes.

Strategy
1. Time = present simple
2. Grammar = active Vocabulary = adverb usage (any)
3. Subject/Object = irrelevant/same
4. Duplication = words to transform = don’t spend much (aux + negation + verb + adverb)

Now you know what is being tested (adverbs) check to see if there is a grammar/vocabulary connection to the first sentence.

In the first sentence much = adverb and in the second sentence you need to use the same type of adverb, any.

Both of these adverbs are neutral, they can be affirmative, or negative if used with not, as in the example.

Think about how to use the grammar. Simplify it.
You cannot only change the adverb as below :

I don’t spend much money on clothes = I spend some money
I don’t spend any money on clothes. = I spend no money NO

Think again! It is impossible to use not in the second sentence because not + any = nothing, nada!

So is there another type of adverb that is negative and can replace not but still = some?Yes – hardly, and a particular adverbial phrase hardly any .

Now test your theory.
spend + hardly + any = some
I (subject) + spend (verb, present simple) + hardly any (adverbial phrase) + money on clothes.

That’s it – the meaning is exactly the same.

I don’t spend much money on clothes.
any
I spend hardly any money on clothes.

This is something you can do for all grammar. However if you haven’t studied the grammar, asked about doubts in class then you won’t get it right!

Vocabulario inglés – PET Speaking Part 3

​Here’s some advice about vocabulary for the photos in the individual turn, Part 3.
Remember the aim is to talk about the photo and not describe it and for this you need a good level of vocabulary.

Below is a short list of example themes that might be the subject of the photo, as well as a list of vocabulary for one of the themes, in this case Holidays.

You need to create a list of words for all themes, but in reality should memorise about 10 words, phrases from each list rather than try to remember them all!

To find vocabulary go to Google search, enter vocabulary shopping, for example.

Themes
Shopping (supermarkets, street markets, clothes, food)
Holidays (beach/city/countryside)
Family activity (eating, watching TV, cooking etc.)
Studies
Work

Example vocabulary
Holidays

All inclusive
Package holiday
Camping holiday
Cycling holiday
Weekend break
City break
Tropical paradise
Busy streets
Tourist attractions
Nightlife
Go for a get away
Go on holiday
Go on a cruise
Go sightseeing
Go hiking

Go camping

Adjectives
Stunning
Spectacular
Sun drenched
Palm fringed
Deserted
Crowded
Relaxing
Peaceful

You travel (verb) by train, plane, bus, coach, bike.
You go on or take a trip, excursion, voyage, holiday, weekend break, city break.
You go sightseeing (to see monuments, galleries etc.).
You can buy souvenirs, keepsakes.
At the beach you can sunbathe (verb), go for a swim, a paddle, a dip.
At the beach you need suncream, sunglasses, a parasol, a deckchair, a towel, a bucket and spade.
To fly you need to have your tickets, boarding pass.
At the airport you need to check in your luggage, suitcases and go shopping in duty free.

Cómo escribir un artículo en inglés

How to write a fantastic article in English

In B2, C1 and C2 you may be given the option of writing an article, typically between 280-380 words depending on level. It can be aimed at a general audience, as well as young people or academic readers and often from your own experience. So how can you be sure your article merits a pass grade in the exam? By following some simple rules.

Style

Before planning your article think about the following questions, and answers.

1. Who is the target reader and what is the appropriate register?
Young readers – relaxed semi-formal.
General public – semi formal.
Institutions – formal

2. What do you need to include in the article?
This will depend on the topic and task but should include specific vocabulary related to the topic.

Typical Topics include…
Environmental issues – volunteering as a conservationist, for example.
Lifestyle choices – living on the road, etc.
The economy – spending trends, etc.
Arts and entertainment – the cult of film noir, etc.
Society – working with homeless people, etc.

3. How will you make it interesting?
Be sure to use the following to a greater or lesser degree depending on the register –
– precise descriptive vocabulary, the sounds an animal might make for example.
– interesting verb phrases – cross my mind, get involved in, etc.
– neutral phrasal verbs – hand out, come across, etc.
– collocations – member of the public, on loan, dog tired etc.
– advanced adjectives and adverbs – sluggishly, haggard, misty etc.


As well as…
a. non defining relative clauses to add extra information
b. passive structures
c. simple and continuous tenses for relaxed semi formal/semi formal
d. perfect tenses, impersonal passives and inversions for formal

4. What style of language will you use?
This will depend on the task but is generally either,
– anecdotal – your own experience
– objective – a more factual account

Example texts

Look at the two texts below which are part of an answer to the following task.

Task
You recently spent two weeks working as a volunteer on an organic farm as part of a project to familiarise young people from the city with country life. You have been asked to write an article for an environmental newsletter describing your duties and experience.

Text A
As I staggered outside sleepily at 6 a.m the sun was already up and the grass was sparkling with early morning dew. The cows were munching the grass and the sheep were roaming peacefully over a distant hillside. Other than that there was just peace and quiet. No traffic, no horns blaring, no people rushing to work. Yes my job was about to start but for now I had 5 minutes to enjoy the sounds and smells of the natural surroundings.

Comment
The target reader is young people and this type of highly descriptive, narrative style captures the imagination and should encourage them to read further. It also contrasts the difference between the lives they know in the city with the countryside and so offers an immediate connection in the first lines of the article. It uses very simple structures, no complex grammar, but uses a rich array of specific and non specific vocabulary.

Text B
I had decided to take part in a volunteer scheme for young people from the city to live and work on a farm for two weeks in the summer. Farm life had always attracted me and I also belonged to an environmental organisation so I had an interest in the growing of organic vegetables and in keeping livestock. So it was with lots of enthusiasm that we set off for the farm one day early in July. Little did I know what delights awaited me!

Comment
This is much more formal with past perfect and complex structures which together with its use of higher level nouns (livestock, for example) immediately puts it into semi formal territory. The use of semi formal structures and vocabulary limits the flow of the text, and other than factual information the reader is left with no idea of what an early morning in the countryside might be like.

My opinion
Text A is a fantastic example of a writer communicating well with their audience, young adults who have never experienced the countryside or life without the noise and din of the city. It’s narrative style suits the audience and the newsletter format perfectly.

Text B is dry, not as easy to read, factual and not as appealing or easy to read as Text A.

But of course this is only applicable to this specific task. A newsletter about carbon depletion for an academic journal would be totally different and text A would be completely unsuitable.

Advice

1. Understand your reader.
2. Check specific vocabulary.
3. Write a vocabulary list before your plan.
4. Write a short plan – 4/5 paragraphs.
5. Use your imagination.
6. Create a snappy or appropriate title
7. Enjoy it!

Vocabulario Inglés – dinero

When you have money

Idioms

You can…
Live the high life
Have a high standard of living
Lead a jetset lifestyle
Be a jetsetter
Be a self-made millionaire/billionaire
Be a self-made man/woman


You can also be …
Rolling in money
Have money to burn
Be a cash magnet

Adjectives for people with a lot of money

You can be…
Wealthy
Rich
Loaded
Minted
Blessed
Prosperous
Affluent
Well off
Comfortable
Comfortably off/well off
Filthy rich
Stinking rich
Rolling in it

Adjectives for people with little or no money

You ca be…
Hard up
Broke
Skint
Brassic
Penniless
Poor
Impoverished
Destitute
Poverty stricken

Idioms for people with little or no money

You can be…
On the bones of your arse
On a tight budget
On the breadline
Living on a shoestring
Find it hard to live within your means
Be a little short
Find it hard to make ends meet

Shopping and spending idioms

You can…
Spend money like water
Fritter money away
Be a spendaholic
Be a shopaholic
Indulge in retail therapy
Shop till you drop
Go window shoppingGo on a shopping trip/excursion/spree

You can…
Pay in cash
Pay by credit card
Put it on the plastic
Buy on the never never
Take out Hire Purchase
Pay in instalments
Take out a loan

Personal characteristics

You can be…
Generous
Giving
Philanthropic
Unselfish
Charitable


Or…
Mean
Miserly
Stingy
Tight
Tight fisted
Uncharitable
Ungenerous

Nouns for money

Cash
Readies
Moolah
Notes
Greenbacks (USA)
Dosh


Specific amounts in English
1 GBP – a quid
5 GBP – a fiver
10 GBP – a tenner
100 GBP – a ton
1000 GBP – a grand

Vocabulario inglés – stupidity

Fool word family

fool concrete noun / verb
foolishness noun
foolish adjective
foolishly adverb

Fool idioms and compounds

Tom foolery
Play the fool
Fool around ( + with – sexual in meaning)
Fools rush in where angles fear to tread

Idiocy word family

Idiot concrete noun
idiocy noun
idiotic adjective
Idiotically adverb

Idiocy idioms and compounds

Village idiot

Retard word family

retard concrete noun / verb
retardation noun
retarded adjective

Other nouns and idioms

Twit concrete noun
Imbecile concrete noun
Daft as a brush
Soft in the head
A penny short
Not the brightest button in the box
Dumb (adj.)
Thick (adj.)
Thick as two short planks
Thick as pigshit
Dense
Knucklehead
Dunce
Dumbass
Dipstick
Dipshit
Noodlehead
Blonde
Bonehead
Brainless (adj.)
Gormless (adj.)
Bit of a Boris
Bit of a Trump

Cómo hablar bien en inglés

Speaking well in English

Self correction

Speaking English as a second language is never easy as it involves many skills.

Typically, when you begin learning it’s difficult to remember everything , the vocabulary, the grammar, the pronunciation. Usually new students also translate what they want to say from Spanish into English and then back into Spanish to see if it was correct. This means that students speak too slowly – but with practice and time, as students’ confidence improves, they translate less and less.

One thing you should always do is listen to yourself, to what you say and any mistakes you make. If you do this you can then self-correct any errors. This is very important when you do the speaking in the exam as when you self-correct a mistake that mistake is erased and doesn’t affect your grade.

So, try not to translate but do listen to yourself.

One of the easiest ways to sound more fluent when speaking is to use phrasal verbs and expressions (hot topic, come across, for example). This comes with practise.

The collaborative task is a conversation, you need to speak, listen and respond. You also need to try to be yourself and not sound like a robot. Having a genuine conversion in English with some mistakes is much better than a perfect but robotic and unnatural conversation.

The topic under discussion is usually a hypothetical situation, for example the affects of different technology on our lives. It requires good vocabulary, particularly abstract nouns – for example, teaching, education, learning.

You also need to use non specific vocabulary, for example linkers… However, despite, although, nevertheless etc.

Expressing your opinion in English

Here’s some specific ways of expressing your opinion in the collaborative speaking…. Particularly when it’s a current hot topic such as global warming/the environment, but also education etc.

“the topic….”
…. concerns/worries me a lot
…. concerns/worries me greatly
…. strikes me as the most important issue of our time

I’ve struggled with this issue
I’ve thought about this often
I’ve thought about this a lot
I’ve often considered this
It’s a complex issue
There are many opinions on this
I find it difficult to express my opinion on this
What worries/concerns me is..

Disagreeing in English

I couldn’t disagree more
I can’t agree with/accept that

I don’t quite see your point
That’s not how I see it
That hasn’t been my experience

I think you’re mistaken

Agreeing in English

You’re absolutely right
I couldn’t agree more
That’s how I see it
Precisely!
Exactly!
Yes/Yup!

Asking for clarification in English

I’m sorry I didn’t quite understand that
I’m not sure I understand you correctly

So what you’re saying is….
Are you saying that….
Could you explain that….
In what way is….

Watch out!

Spanish speakers often use the verb to be with agree, example I’m agree. This is absolutely not correct in English. I agree is the correct way of expressing yourself.

Cambridge PET 2020 nuevo formato

What is the new PET exam Format?

The Cambridge PET will be different from January 2020 and both students and teachers need to be aware of the changes.

So, what is different about the new style Cambridge PET exam?
The first question a student asks is whether the exam more or less difficult than before. Here’s my opinion.

Main Changes

Reading and Writing are now separate Parts. Students have 45 minutes to complete each part.

Writing is the same as the old style exam.

Reading now has 6 parts with a new Part where students need to put missing sentences into a piece of text. This is similar to the B2 exam and is quite challenging for students. We will look at the strategy for this part, in detail, in another post.

In my opinion, 45 minutes to complete the Reading with its 6 parts is going to be very difficult for some students. Keyword recognition will be critical if the Reading is to be done within the time.

Listening stays the same but is much shorter in duration, 30 minutes compared to 40 minutes. This has probably been achieved by cutting down on instructions, preparation time for each part, and perhaps the speed of the speakers in the listening. The fact that it is ten minutes shorter suggests that it will be more difficult than before when it was 40 minutes.

Speaking time has also been reduced to 12 mins as opposed to the 15 minutes previously. Personally this is irrelevant as I have yet to know of a single speaking exam that conformed to the quoted time. The length of the speaking depends on the examination centre, how many candidates and examiners they have and how well organised they are. Do not believe you will get the stated time in the speaking – it never happens and may be much shorter or a little longer than the 12 minutes.

We will be looking at the new exam format in-depth shortly.

Download a PDF of what’s new

Here is the official PDF from Cambridge of the new exam format. You may download and print it.


Linkers en inglés B2 FCE/C1 CAE

Contrast linkers in English

In spite of / Despite 
Link two contrasting ideas. Followed by a noun phrase.
Despite leaving early we missed the train
We enjoyed the holiday in spite of the rain.

Although / (Even) though 
Link two contrasting ideas. Followed by a sentence. 
Even though many scientists believe in quantum theory, a small group disagree.

However / Nevertheless / Still /Yet / Even so / On the contrary / In contrast to
Introduce a new idea which marks a contrast with previously stated ideas. Introduced by a comma. 
In contrast to popular opinion, it seems likely that our extinction is close at hand.

On the one hand … On the other hand.
Links two contrasting ideas / paragraphs. 

Whereas 
Link two contrasting ideas. Not separated by commas. 
I like boys whereas Pedro likes girls.

Reason and Cause

Because / As / Since / Seeing that 
Introduce a concept, idea, rebuff.
Since it is well known that English is an important language, many people study it.

Because of / On account of / Owing to / Due to.
Introduce a noun phrase, consequence. 
Flights have been cancelled due to the weather.

Purpose

In order to / So as to 
Introduce an infinitive of purpose/reason.
A questionnaire was created so as to gather opinions.

Consequence

Consequently / As a consequence / As a result / Therefore / As a consequence of / As a result of – Followed by a noun phrase. 
As a consequence of recent weather all local trains have been cancelled.

Addition

Moreover / Furthermore / In addition / Besides / What’s more 
Used after a strong pause and separated from the sentences. They are introduced by a comma. 
Most people dislike politics, what’s more many actively disengage from it.

As well as / In addition to / Besides 
Used to add  one more piece of information. Followed by a noun phrase. 
As well as questioning students, teachers and other members of staff were approached.

Exemplification

For example / For instance 
Introduces an example referring to previously stated ideas. 

Such as 
Introduces an example referring to the last idea.
I like lots of types of music, such as rap.

 

Vocabulario inglés – discutiendo

Arguing in English -vocabulary

You can have…

An argument
A disagreement
A fall/falling out
A quarrel
A slanging match
A tiff
A Lover’s tiff
A row
A blow up
A barny

A Punch up – with violence
A set to – with violence

You can also…
Say your peace
Speak your mind

Then you can…

Make up
Make it up
Kiss and make up
Make peace

Settle your differences
Offer an Olive branch
Forgive and forget

Vocabulario para la muerte

Words connected with death

Get over + something (-), examples – a death, a shock, a tragedy, a divorce a cold, the flu

Expressions meaning to calm down when over emotional.
Get over yourself
Pull yourself together

Chill out

There are lots of vocabulary for death and bereavement.
Death (noun)
Deathly (adverb)
Dead (the) (noun)
Dead (adj.)
Deathless (adj.)
Die (verb)

Compound adj.  noun + verb
Death defying – to survive death
Compound adj. verb + adverb
Die hard – difficult to die

Come to terms with a death.’

Bereavement (noun)
Bereaved (c. noun)
Bereaved (adj.)
‘Get over a bereavement.’


Grief (noun)
Grieve (verb)
Grieving (adj.)
Grieved (adj.)
Aggrieved (adj.)

Be stricken with, struggle with, cope with, overcome grief.

Mourning (noun)
Mourner (noun)
Mourn (verb)
Be in/out of mourning.

We have many many expressions connected with death, as in most cultures.

Cómo aprender más palabras en inglés – todos niveles

Learning new English words is essential not only for the exam, but to help your speech sound more natural and fluent. The wrong word, or word form, dropped by mistake into a conversation can be at best confusing, and at worst embarrassing.

Reading books for pleasure and learning English
All English is here…

Secret to success!

Reading

Whether in the classroom or in everyday life the printed page is a treasure trove of vocabulary of all types. If your teacher sets a reading exercise for homework don’t simply answer the task questions, use the opportunity to look up any words that you don’t recognise and pay attention to other structures such as verb/noun patterns, collocations etc.

Vocabulary can be split into certain groups, and keeping a written record of these groups will really help when it comes to revision for an exam or any occasion when you need to communicate in English.

Word groups

Keep groups simple so it is easier to remember them, and group them as follows.

GeneralTopic based nouns/verbs/phrasal verbs – examples,
Topic – Technology, online forum, download, look up etc.

General – object nouns – examples, power tool, blusher, waistband etc.

General – phrasal verbs/idioms/collocations – examples, set out, talk of the town, bitter disappointment etc

Word Families – examples, memory (n), memorise (v), memorable (adj.) etc.

Verb Patterns – examples, depend on + ing., decide + inf., used to + ing., etc.

Noun Patterns – examples, difference between, contrast to, etc.

Connectors/Linkers – examples, in spite of + ing/noun, nevertheless + ing etc.

All of these types are found in all forms of written English, but to find as many new words as possible read different types of text, for example scientific articles, fashion magazine articles, narrative fiction, newspapers stories, technical instructions, etc. In the classroom most reading exercises are taken from a wide variety of sources, but you can help yourself and use the internet which has billions of texts, for free.

How to quickly check the meaning of a word, phrasal verb or idiom in English

Very easily, simply enter the word followed by definition into Google and you should be given not only the definition but also synonyms, antonyms etc.

For an even easier way to check the meaning of a general noun simply type the word into Google search followed by the word images.

gerund o infinitivo en inglés B1 y B2

Understanding verb patterns in English

First we need to understand the infinitive and what it is in English.

1. Bare infinitive
Example – play
2. Full infinitive
Example – to play

Some verbs in English always require the following verb to be either 1 or 2 but never both.

Example want, offer, decide to do something.

Verb + object + full/bare inf.
Example tell, ask someone to do something.

Other verbs require an ing verb.
Example – enjoy, detest swimming.

Prepositions also require it.
Example, in, at, on, by etc Crazy about swimming.

Time words such as before or after.

Other verbs can be used with full/bare infinitive or ing
Example – like, love to swim/swimming.

So how can we learn verb patterns?

Easy, Pay attention when doing readings! Write down any verb plus preposition or the form of the verb after the preceding verb, or noun.

Examples – want + to play, depend + on + learning, aware + of + poverty

What is the difference between ing and infinitive?

Again we first need to understand that infinitives represent 3 things in English – reason, purpose, intention. Infinitives do not describe an action in progress or a completed action, merely a fact about an event.

Ing forms represent actions in progress and completed actions.

Verbs like start, stop, begin, finish – words that describe the state of an action/verb can be confusing.

My mum started to dial his number but couldn’t remember it.
No action completed – only intention.

My mum started dialing his number but couldn’t remember it.
No action completed – only intention.

There is no real difference between the sentences.

Why? Because of the verb start. Start always refers forwards to an imminent/future action.

But…

My mum stopped (an unknown action) to speak to her friend (purpose).

My mum stopped speaking (completed action) to her friend.

Totally different – why?

The verb stop tells us that an action finishes – and so usually refers backwards to a previous action, but it can also refer forwards to introduce a future action.

When a verb like stop is followed by the infinitive it tells us the reason/purpose/intention of the next action.

So I know there is a previous unknown, maybe unimportant, action which was interrupted, even if I don’t state it.

When stop is followed by a verb+ing it refers to an ongoing action.

The verb refers backwards or forwards depending on what the writer wants to emphasise or how important different events are.

Pay attention when reading, all patterns are there!


Gramática Inglés – inversiones

Inversions in English
In English, inversions are used in formal writing and are very easy to use.

Their most typical usage is to replace if in conditional structures.

The structure is very simple, and writing an inversion very easy.

Typical structure – subject + aux. + verb
Inversion aux. + subj. + verb

Normal
If I had known Ricardo was stupid I wouldn’t have married him.

Inversion
Had I known Ricardo was stupid I wouldn’t have married him.

Normal
If she studied she would pass the exam.

Inversion
Were she to study she would pass the exam.

We also use inversions with certain words such as seldom, rarely, never, hardly, scarcely, etc.

Normal
She had seldom seen such a handsome man.

Inversion
Seldom had she seen such a handsome man.

Using inversions is so simple, there really is no excuse not to use them in a report, formal essay, etc. Try them.

Phrasal Verbs – relationships

​Two people who have a good relationship are often said to get on (well/great/badly) with: I get on really well with both of my brothers.

Meanwhile, people who stop being friends after an argument are frequently said to fall out: The brothers fell out over money.

Our relationships are very important to us so we talk about them a lot. Often, to describe the way we feel about a person, or something that has happened to a relationship, we use phrasal verbs.

Some are used for talking about romantic relationships and others relate to friends and family members. All are common.

Let’s start with the first time we meet another person. If we like them, we may say that we take to them and if, (as sometimes happens), we decide that we do not like them, we may say that we take against them: I hadn’t met Jamie’s girlfriend before but I really took to her – I thought she was lovely./Tom took against Rebecca because she said something bad about his friend.

If we very much like someone that we have just met and become friendly immediately, we sometimes use the informal phrasal verb hit it off: I introduced Jake to Ollie and they really hit it off. (Notice that ‘it’ is always part of this phrase. This is true for a small group of phrasal verbs.)

If one particular thing about a person you have just met makes you not like them, you may say that it puts you off them: Kate’s husband was very rude to our waiter and it put me off him a bit.

Looking now at phrasal verbs that relate to romance, if we suddenly have strong romantic feelings for someone, we may say that we fall for them: Dan was good-looking and charming and I just fell for him.

A common way to say that two people are having a romantic relationship is to say that they are going out (together): Ava and Isaac have been going out for over a year now.

Sadly, not all romantic relationships last. If a couple start arguing a lot, you might say they go through difficulties, (often in the phrase ‘go through a bad patch’): Charles and Sophie went through a bad patch a while back, but I think they’re over it now.

If, over time, a couple gradually become less close until the point when the relationship ends, you may say that they drift apart: There was no big argument – we just gradually drifted apart.

If a married couple or a couple who are going out split up or break up, they end their relationship.
Let’s remember that people who fall out can sometimes make up (= forgive each other and become friends or lovers again).

Bullet lists – inglés

How to create a bullet or numbered list in English.

There are some simple rules about bullet and numbered lists in English, and how to write them well.

You should not write a long or complex sentence after a bullet or numbered list, use between 1 – 5 words only. Brevity or is key.

The first word form following each bullet  in your list must be consistent, but depends on the preceding sentence and word form that introduces the list, and also depending on the verb pattern normally used.

Examples

Verb + object = articles
Students reported :
– a lack of space
– an inability to focus
– a clumsy login procedure

Verb + pattern (ing)
Students suggested:
– recycling more paper
– saving water
– reducing heating times

Verb + noun
Students considered the following as important:
– Freedom to experiment
– Enforcement of school policies
– Reciprocation of shared resources

Verb + pattern (infinitive)
Students expressed a desire to:
– Share resources
– Exchange information
– Practice more speaking

Escritura formal en inglés – B2, C1 y C2

Writing formal English made easy.

Tips for writing a semi formal or formal Report in English

Articles

The most common mistake non-native speakers make when writing is with articles, and specifically the definitive article, the. Typical mistakes are with abstract nouns, for example…

The education is important. Incorrect
Education is an abstract, uncountable noun.

Education is important. Correct

Here’s a tip.
If you write a noun that finishes with…
• tion – ex. separation
• ment – ex. excitement
• ness – ex. happiness
• ism – ex. communism
• ality – ex. formality
• ity – ex. stupidity
• ogy – ex. technology


Think carefully – they are abstract!

You can use the with an abstract noun if you add a countable or more specific noun.

Example
The education system. Correct

Converting active to passive

Another simple trick is to convert active informal sentences into passive formal structures or using more formal word forms.

You told me.
I was informed

I asked for.
I requested

He gave me.
I was given

Everyone agreed.
It was the general consensus

We decided.
It was agreed.

How to transform a paragraph’s register

Transforming a basic informal paragraph into a formal paragraph is also very easy. Below is an example from a Report.

Informal
I gave students a questionnaire which they completed. I asked for their opinions and feedback on the situation at school. They responded,
• lack of space
• old software


Formal
Students were given (passive) a questionnaire to complete (infinitive of purpose). Questions were designed (passive) to solicit (infinitive of purpose / no pronouns) opinions and feedback on the current situation (colocation) at school. Responses (direct subject) were as follows: (fixed phrase/correct punctuation)
• lack of space ✓
outdated software (word choice).

Creating a professional bullet list

Creating a bullet or numbered list
There are some simple rules about bullet and numbered lists.

You should not write a sentence after a bullet or numbered list, use between 1 – 5 words only.

The first word form in your list must be consistent, but depends on the preceding sentence and word form that introduces the list, depending on the verb pattern normally used.

Examples
Students reported : (articles)
– a lack of space
– an inability to focus
– a clumsy login procedure

Students suggested: (present participle)
– recycling more paper
– saving water
– reducing heating times

Students considered the following as important: (abstract nouns)
– Freedom to experiment
– Enforcement of school policies
– Reciprocation of shared resources

Students expressed a desire to: (infinitive)
– Share resources
– Exchange information
– Practice more speaking

Discurso colaborativo – Cambridge B2 FCE First

Cambridge English First (B2) Collaborative speaking. Topic –the environment
Keywords climate change, fossil fuels, consumption, reduction, global warming, car sharing schemes, deforestation, ozone layer, contamination, recycling, aviation.

Useful linkers – in spite of, despite, however, although, nevertheless, also, but

Useful phrases – I totally agree, I couldn’t agree more, you’re right, I completely disagree, you’re crazy


Lucia and Maria practising the collaborative part of the Cambridge FCE B2 exam – volume is low.

Comments


Maria – white T-Shirt
Grammatical structures
Generally excellent with only 1 or 2 minor mistakes that do not impede understanding
Vocabulary
A little limited, could have included higher level nouns plus linkers and connectors. 1 or 2 small mistakes with word form.
Fluency
Very good with clear pronunciation and a natural rhythm. Very conversational, as it should be, and with only slight nervousness.
Global achievement of task
Excellent.
General
As Maria is taking her exam in December 2019 there is plenty of time to fine-tune her speaking performance.

Lucia – black T-Shirt
Grammatical structures
Generally very good with some minor mistakes that do not impede understanding
Vocabulary
Again a little limited, could have included higher level nouns plus linkers and connectors. 1 or 2 small mistakes with word form, for example consume (v) should be consumption (noun).
Fluency
Generally good with clear pronunciation and a good rhythm. Very conversational, as it should be, nut with quite a lot of nervousness.
She looked at the examiner when her attention should have been on Maria.
Global achievement of task
Excellent.
General
As Lucia is taking her exam in December 2019 there is plenty of time to fine-tune her speaking performance


The double meanings of English

The hidden language of English

​A language evolves in response to the needs if it’s people and the conventions of society and the English language is no exception.

A good example of this is how and why English has so many words, phrasal verbs and expressions that have a sexual connotation. This is something students ask me about all the time, especially in C1 and C2.

For example there are many many phrasal verbs that have a sexual meaning, by simply changing the preposition or adding another we can completely alter meaning.

Consider…
Go down – to reduce
Go down on – to perform oral sex
Jack (something) in – to stop an activity
Jack off – to masturbate
Touch (something) up – to reapply makeup or paint
Touch (someone) – to touch someone in a sexual way
Get on with (someone) – have a good relationship
Get it on with (someone) – to have sex

The English obsession with sex

So why exactly does the English Language contain so many references to sex?

During the long reign of queen Victoria sex became taboo – on the surface. In reality it was a very promiscuous era with rampant prostitution. But to be acceptable in society you had to appear to be decent, wholesome, prim and proper, moral and chaste. Society wore a mask. It had less to do with religion than with social class and breeding and the need for higher classes to distance themselves from the lower classes who were believed to be morally and intellectually inferior. This mode of thinking was perpetuated and spread with fervor throughout the Colonies of the British Empire.

This continued into the 1920’s when society began to change and become more liberal, thanks in part to the First World War and the sudden sense of liberation felt at its close. Women from the higher classes who had previously been forced to wear tight fitting corsets and follow social norms, had also discovered a new sense of power and freedom after working in munitions factories and found themselves working cheek by jowl with lower class working girls. This is when the double entendre became normal and we would say one thing but actually mean another, in relation to our sexuality and behaviour. Slowly the language began to change, helped by playwrights like Noel coward.

This play on words finally grew into a huge form of entertainment in the 1970’s with people like Benny Hill and the Carry On films. British television was full of this type of comedy and in a way that wasn’t permitted on American television, which was and still is actually quite reserved, especially about sex.  An entire generation of British kids were raised on these types of programme and film, and so the sexual double entendre became as much a part of our social fabric as fish and chips or Big Ben.

To really understand what this type of humour is I recommend looking for Carry On movies on YouTube, any will be packed chock full of innuendo, though perhaps Carry On Cleo will illustrate it more clearly. These films remain firm British favourites with the older generation and will hopefully continue to be so.

Suitable for kids?

This is really an irrelevant question when talking about innuendo as kids generally don’t see the connection between an innocent word, for example pear (the fruit) and a woman in a tight fitting dress with a large bossom (chest) holding the fruit, and the words ‘Nice pear’ spoken by a man – to a child it refers to the fruit, to an adult it refers to the woman’s bossom, chest or breasts. Whether this is morally acceptable in today’s world is another question and the art of innuendo is dying out..

Vocabulario inglés – el cuerpo – B2/C1

Below are adjectives and nouns in English to describe people and how they look.

Body Type

Obese, fat, chubby, corpulent, slim, slender, sinuous, lithe, svelte, thin, skinny, muscular, big, big boned, stocky, rotund, pot-bellied, small-framed, small-boned, petite, short, tal

Face

Beautiful, handsome, pretty, stunning, striking, distinguished, gorgeous; drop dead gorgeous, elfen, boyish, hideous, grotesque, repugnant, baby faced

Hair

Short haired, long haired, fair haired, dark haired, thinning, balding, receding, unruly, neat, tidy, fine, fly away, frizzy, curly, wavey, straight, wispy, thick, glossy, dull

Nouns

A stunner +
A babe +
A dreamboat +
A hottie +
A pig
A dog
A looker +
A hunk +
A beefcake +

Vocabulario inglés – celebrity

English vocabulary for Celebrity, B2 level.

Nouns
Fame
Infamy (-)
Glamour
Glitz
Gossip
Stardom
Starlet
Star
Celebrity
Icon
Role model
Gold digger

Phrases and expressions
boy band/girl group
a male/female band who often just sing and dance

to be destined for stardom
to have a high chance of becoming famous

rising star
becoming famous

talent shows
contests involving people with skills like singers

to have a bright future ahead of them
their later life will be positive

to be an overnight success
to become famous very quickly and gain lots of attention

to become famous almost overnight
to get fame very quickly

to be a household name
a famous person whose name is well-known

at his/her peak
when he/she was most famous/creative/productive

newspaper gossip columns
sections in a newspaper for rumours about famous people

the rumour mill
when gossip is spread

to dry up
work, talent to decrease to zero

time will tell
the result/conclusion can only be seen at a later date in a career

big break
to be discovered and become famous

one trick pony/one hit wonder
able to do only one thing

victim of own success
to have problems because of fame

claim to fame
reason for fame

El personaje britanico – the British character

Excessive Politeness

Politeness is one thing, but the tendency to apologise every time you brush past someone on the street is another.

As pleasant as it is to shout “thank you driver” every time we leave the bus, and spend hours quibbling over who’s going to pay the restaurant bill, our civilities can surpass the limit at times.

Sarcasm

While the use of sarcasm isn’t an exclusively British thing, the subtleness and frequency with which we employ it is what differentiates us from the rest.

Many Brits will apply mockery and irony in everyday conversation almost subconsciously, and it’s something many just don’t get.

Self mockery

Brits are very good at mocking themselves. We’re continually saying things like “God, I’m an idiot” or “look at the state of me” in everyday conversation, while British comedians are forever inciting laughter about British traditions, at which we are the first to laugh.

Keeping Quiet

Harking back to our excessive politeness, British people have a tendency to remain quiet and deal with it when it comes to uncomfortable or unpleasant situations. A good thing, you may think, but it only increases the extent to which we moan about the horror we endured afterwards.

Drinking tea

This is the most common giveaway, especially if a Brit ever finds themselves surrounded by people who only seem to believe in drinking herbal tea. Rather a builder’s brew any day, thanks.

Awkwardness

Only a Brit would avoid getting on a bus purely because they see someone on there who they’ll have to make small talk with, or run from a room the minute they feel uncomfortable.

We so easily feel ‘awkward’, and we dedicate a lot of our lives to trying to escape from these situations.

Boozing

There’s no doubt about it, we are the world’s booziest nation. While Europeans will enjoy a night out on a few glasses and Americans tend to save it for house parties, Brits drink with the sole object of getting wasted, and aren’t afraid to make it a wholly public affair.

Fibbing

Brits are often somehow incapable of revealing what we are really thinking. Things like “no offence, but…” and “I’ll bear it in mind” are prime examples of phrases that we often say when we actually mean something very different. The all-too-common “I’m fine” line is another classic lie.

Holidays

We love our all-inclusives. Pay one sum of money over the Internet and get the whole lot: flights, seedy hotel, unlimited alcohol and a whole load of other sunburnt Brits to sunbathe, drink and eat too much with. Oh, how cultured we are.

Aversion to PDA

The British struggle with public displays of affection. Fondling lovers are cringy and unwelcome at all times, and the commonplace reaction is to tell them to “get a room” as soon as a couple so much as hugs.

Used to y would – B1

In English, to describe routines and states in the past we use would and used to.

Routine
* would – only affirmative
* Mainly used with action verbs

subj + used to/would + infinitive
I used to/would play tennis on Fridays when I was younger.
I didn’t use to play tennis..
Did you use to play tennis…?

State
only used to is possible
be, have, like, enjoy, hate, know, believe etc

I used to be a ballerina before the car accident.
I used to hate cycling.

Getting/becoming used to – to describe process
Same in all forms

subj + be + getting/becoming used to + verb + ing
I’m getting used to living in Alicante.

Used to – to describe present routine
same in all forms

subj + be + used to + verb + ing
I’m used to waking up early every morning.
I’m not used to waking up early every morning.
Are you used to waking up early every morning?

¿Cuál es la diferencia entre los niveles de inglés?

​I’m often asked what the difference is between the different levels in English, for example B1 & B2. So here’s my opinion.

KET A2

Pre-intermediate
A2 is very, very basic.  You are expected to be able to understand very simple instructions and information when reading or listening. 

Writing is also easy with a limited expectation of vocabulary and the most basic of grammar, for example present and past simple, continuous, and future simple. 

Speaking is judged on your ability to answer questions from an information sheet, have the most basic of interaction, as well as being able to pronounce the alphabet. 

Students who take B1 and are given A2 really must have performed badly in the exam to score so very low.

PET B1

Intermediate
In my opinion B1 is quite a low level and adds maybe 30% to what you learn in A2.

Unlike A2 in B1 you are expected to be able to understand basic spoken and written information and also context. This means a larger vocabulary and better skills with listening and reading. Vocabulary is mainly basic word forms, a handful of phrasal verbs and mainly Celtic based words, for example put, take, give etc. These are extremely important for the 5 parts of Reading (synonyms, modals etc.) and the 3 parts of writing, particularly the sentence transformations in part 1.  

The grammar is also a little more complex with reported speech, zero, first and second conditionals, passives, comparatives etc, and again these are mainly tested in the 3 parts of writing.  

Writing is still quite simple with informal emails and short stories, but speaking is very different. You need to be able to describe, exchange opinions, hypothesise and interact conversationally. We have an in-depth post about the speaking part. 

FCE B2

Upper intermediate 
Overall B2 is not very different to B1 but the level of required understanding is much higher. It adds about 25% more to what you learn in B1. 

Grammar is very similar but you are expected to know the subtle differences in meaning between verb forms, verb and noun patterns, dependent prepositions, collocations etc. You need greater vocabulary and knowledge of phrasal verbs, set expressions, idioms etc. In B2 you have more abstract word forms and particularly Latin based words (though these are the same in Spanish, in 90% of cases). 

Listening is quite different, questions are more subtle and people speak much quicker and with different accents. Again, we have a post dedicated to Listening (B1, B2, C1).

The biggest difference is writing – you are expected to be able to write informally, semi formally and formally for letters, articles, reviews, reports etc. This requires extensive use of complex grammatical structures, for example perfect tenses, participle clauses etc.

Use of English is a separate unit in the exam and is very difficult as it requires a good knowledge of word forms, dependent prepositions, collocations, etc.

There are some badly educated English people who would struggle to produce a good example of writing, Use of English or speaking at this level.

CAE C1

Advanced 
Advanced is the hardest level in my opinion. It adds 70% more to what you are taught in all lower levels. You cannot study and pass this level quickly.

Complex grammar and thousands of new words/idioms etc make this level very dense.

Listening is very very difficult with natural speech, very subtle tricks and at fast speeds.

Speaking is similar to B2 but themes are more abstract and you are expected to be able to hypothesise about abstract concepts and themes.. 

Writing and use of English are similar to B2 but at a much higher level. Complex grammatical structures are expected, especially in semi/formal writing such as reports, articles etc. These include inversions, 3rd conditional structures and many fixed phrases and idioms, 

Reading is very difficult with a required level of vocabulary that cannot be compared to other lower levels. Reading can be narrative, academic, scientific, or business orientated.

CPE C2

C2 really only adds a layer of vocabulary onto C1. It is very language heavy with very little grammar because 99% if it is covered in C1. 

It is the icing on the cake for those who have C1 but as a native speaker I personally don’t think it deserves its reputation for fluency – it means you are proficient or very very good in a language but not to the same extent as a born native. Language is not only a collection of structures and words, it is cultural and in the blood. Having said that, C2 remains the ultimate level a student can reach in any language test.

Vocabulario y escritura inglés – Climate change essay

Here are some ideas related to the environment, that you can use in the writing or speaking part of your Cambridge English exam.

Talking about the size of the problem

crisis
Climate change is a crisis that cannot be ignored by governments.

record levels/amount
Despite the claims of some scientists, we are now producing record levels of CO2 and there is no dispute about the connection this and global warming.

disaster/disastrous
It is not an exaggeration to say that the effects of global warming are disastrous.

global
Although some areas are relatively unaffected now, climate change is a global problem.

irreversible
The major concern is that the effects of our actions on the climate will be irreversible.

long-term
The effects of our use of fossil fuels today may last for generations and it is almost certain to have long-term consequences for humanity.


Negative Effects

This group of climate change vocabulary gives you language to explain what the effects are. As you read through the examples note the different language I use for effects and probability.

ill-health
It sometimes goes unnoticed that there is a clear connection between climate change and ill-health.

floods/rainstorms
One result of the rising temperatures is that floods and rainstorms are now a frequent occurrence.

the Polar ice cap
One major concern is that rising temperatures in the Arctic are causing the Polar ice cap to melt, which in turn is leading to rising sea levels.

heatwaves and droughts
Most experts agree that there is an increased risk of heatwaves and other extreme weather conditions.

the natural world
Climate change will not only have a severe impact on people, but also devastate the natural world and lead to the extinction of important species.

food shortages
We are already seeing in many parts of the world that climate change is leading to food shortages as a direct consequence of extreme weather conditions.

housing/homelessness
One side-effect of rising sea levels is that more and more people who live by the coast will become homeless.

conflicts/wars
If no action is taken on climate change, then it is likely that there will be more conflicts between nations, especially over water supplies.

cost
It has been shown that any delay in making emission cuts will increase the cost of reducing carbon dioxide by almost 50%.


Causes

You may also need to discuss the causes of climate change too. You don’t need any very technical knowledge and this vocabulary should be enough. Again, note the cause language.

human activity
It is no longer possible to say that human activity does not affect weather conditions.

greenhouse gas emissions
If we are to halt climate change, we need to make substantial reductions in greenhouse gas emissions.

power stations
One of the leading causes of climate change is the number of dirty power stations using fossil fuels.

carbon emissions
Carbon emissions are still rising year by year and are at record levels.

illegal logging and deforestation
It should not be forgotten that illegal logging in the Amazon Basin is still a major factor in climate change.

burning fossil fuels
Individuals can make a small contribution by not burning wood and other fossil fuels.

CO2
The root cause of much global warming is the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere.


Possible solutions

These words and phrases show different kinds of solutions. Some show what should be done (use more renewable energy and invest money), others show how it should be done (quickly and together).

wind and solar power
An obvious solution is to deploy much more wind and solar power.

renewable energy
Wind farms and other sources of renewable energy will help to reduce Co2 emissions to an acceptable level.

international action/cooperation
International action on climate change could have a significant impact.

quick/immediate action
Any action should be immediate because this is not a problem that can be delayed.

investment
There should be greater incentives to invest in renewables and to reduce the current reliance on fossil fuels.

decommission power stations
It goes without saying that coal-fuelled power stations should be decommissioned.

protest/campaign
Individuals can help force governments to act by taking part in legal protests against the continuing use of fossil fuels.

energy efficiency and waste
A greater emphasis on energy efficiency and reducing waste would undoubtedly mean that less fuel was consumed.


Ways of taking action

Climate change is a problem – that almost everyone can agree on. When you have a problem, you need to take action. These words and phrases give you a variety of ways of saying that. Note the different structures used with these verbs.

cope
It is clear that national governments are no longer able to cope by themselves with the problem.

tackle
A global solution is necessary as only international bodies will be able to tackle climate change.

avert
Investment in renewable energy will help avert the impact of the CO2 emissions.

prevent
The only way to prevent a disaster is to reduce these emissions to zero.

act/take action
Governments should take decisive action to halt global warming.

fight/combat
A way needs to be found to make combatting global warmingthat is affordable.

sustainable and affordable
The key is to ensure that all countries around the world have the chance to adopt energy


How individuals can help

You may be asked what we as individuals can do about climate change. Here are some ideas – there are plenty of them:

lobby MPs
If enough of us lobbied our MPs and other elected representatives then they would have to bring in legislation.

participate in peaceful protests
Another possibility is to take part in marches and other peaceful protests to apply pressure on governments and raise awareness of the issue..

community projects
In some areas there are small-scale community projects to encourage local residents to install solar panels and, in some places, help pay for them.

share transport
We also have the responsibility to consider how we contribute to global warming by making unnecessary car journeys. We can always cycle to work, have a joint school run with other parents and even share a car on the daily commute to work.

diet and our carbon footprint
Reducing food wastage is perhaps the way individuals can minimise their carbon footprint and so help global warming.

energy-efficient lightbulbs
Another small way in which we can use less energy is to switch to energy efficient lightbulbs.

solar panels
There are an increasing number of solar panels on the market and these can not only reduce energy bills but also mean that less carbon fuel is consumed.

heat insulation
Likewise, it is important that people insulate their houses well so that less gas and electricity is consumed.

Cómo matricularse para un examen de Cambridge

How to register for a Cambridge English exam.
You can register for a Cambridge exam in two different ways, as a private candidate or as a student of Queens.

A. Registering for your exam with Queens.
This is a two part process and is very easy.
1. First you and your partner (remember, at Queens we present you in pairs so you will do the Speaking part with a classmate*) will receive the the information necessary to make a transfer of the exam fee at a bank, direct to Cambridge.

You must include certain information in the concepto, apellido.initial/queens/exam, for example gomez.n/queens/PETCB.

2. The second part of the process is completed by Queen’s and for this we need specific information about you which you must provide by the last day for matriculation.

Your full name.
Your date of birth.
– A valid email address.
– Your DNI
– Your telephone number

Once both parts have been completed you can relax a little. You will receive an email with confirmation of entry for the exam, and also a second email with the day and time of your exam, approximately 10 days before the scheduled exam. You will also receive an email with the rules and guidelines for the exam.

And that’s it!

B. Registering as a private candidate.
This is a relatively straightforward process which involves registering with the local Examination Centre, yourself. You should pay for the exam at the time of registering and everything is done online. You will receive an email with confirmation of entry for the exam, and also a second email with the day and time of your exam, approximately 10 days before the scheduled exam. You will also receive an email with the rules and guidelines for the exam.

To register as a private candidate click here.

*It is not Cambridge policy to put students who know each other (classmates for example) together in Speaking, but it is at the discretion of the Examination Centre. 99% of our students present for their exam with their chosen partner, but there is always the possibility that it may not happen.

Vocabulario – B1/B2 Concerts

Here you can find English vocabulary related to concerts and performance. It is useful for both the speaking and writing parts of the exam, and of course in everyday life.

Performer
Artist
Recording artist
(Record label, record deal)
Band
Group

Open air concert
Music festival
A spectacle
An extravaganza

Audience
Concert goers
Fans
Groupies

Backstage
Backstage pass/VIP pass
Roadies
Sound engineer
Lighting engineer
Sound check
Rehearsal
Run through

inglés B1 PET – Have/Get something done

To say that we have employed a professional to do something for us.

Have/get + something + participle
Examples
I’m having/getting my hair cut today.
They just had their house repainted.
Note – get is very informal.

To say that we had to persuade someone to do something or that it is a favour.

get + someone + to + infinitive
Examples
I got my brother to do my homework or I was going to tell mum that he has started smoking.
She’s getting get friend to bake a cake for her wedding.

Vocabulario – Phrasal Verbs – B1 PET

Come across – find by chance/seem
I came across a nice hotel by the beach.
Raquel comes across as a nice girl.

Come up – unexpected problem 
I was going to the cinema but something came up and now I can’t go.

Come down with – catch an illness
Mum has come down with the flu.

Come intoinherit money
My grandmother died and I’ve come into some money.

Come outmake public
The latest lady Gaga album has come out.

Come by – acquire by chance
I came by a lovely second hand car last week and bought it.

Put up – erect
Dad put up the tent at the campsite.

Put up with – tolerate
I won’t put up with bad behaviour in class.

Put bysave
I put by a little money every month for Christmas.

Put down – insult
The teacher really put me down in class!

Look up – search information
I often look up information online or in a dictionary.

Look for – Search
I’ve been looking for the perfect man all my life.

Look into – investigate
Police are looking into the crime.

Look out – be careful
Look out, there’s car coming!

Take offSuccess
The bike shop has really taken car off and we are getting rich!

Take after – Resemble/similar
I take after my mum, we’re both short and have blue eyes
.

Take over – accept responsibility
I was feeling sick and asked my colleague to take over my work
.

Turn in- go to bed
I’m turning in, see you in the morning.

Turn outan unexpected result
I thought it was going to rain but it turned out sunny.

Turn on – activate
Turn on the air-conditioning please.

Turn into – become something different
A Caterpillar turns into a butterfly.

Turn back – return
The rain was so bad we had to turn back.

Give upquit
I’ve given up smoking.

Adverbs & Adjectives for interest

IMG_20160823_191121_710

Remember the order of adjectives is very important in English.

Opinion | age | size | colour | material

I just bought a beautiful new, small, blue, cotton dress.

Also remember that in English an adjective cannot exist without a noun – it is not an object. So never use a plural form adjective.

There are two yellows chairs. x

There are two yellow chairs. √

Advanced conditionals

These conditional structures are all hypothetical to a greater or lesser degree.

If + subj + (should) happen + to + inf

Example
If you (should) happen to see Maria tell her I will call her later.

if + subj + was/were to + inf

Example
If you were to win the lottery how would you spend it?

supposing/imagine + (that) + subj + past simple/past perfect

Example
Imagine you won the lottery what would you do?

Inversion
Inversions are used in formal writing and are very easy to use.

The structure is very simple. We take out if, invert the position of the aux and subject, and begin with the aux.

Example

Normal
If I had known Ricardo was stupid I wouldn’t have married him.

Inversion
Had I known Ricardo was stupid I wouldn’t have married him.

Vocabulary – describing people advanced

Some adjectives in English are irregular and very specific – they either describe how we feel emotionally or physically, or both.

We usually use this structure…
Subject + feel/s + adjective
example – I feel fabulous.

Here are some adjectives and expressions.

‘The dogs bollocks’ – both
‘Top dog’ – both
Awesome – both
Fantastic – both
Destroyed – both

Annihilated – physical
Crap – physical
Crappy – physical
Stupendous – physical
Amazing – physical
Fabulous – physical
‘Fighting fit’ – physical
‘Fit as a butcher’s dog’ – physical

‘On cloud nine’ – emotional
‘On top of the world’ – emotional
Invincible – emotional
Untouchable – emotional
Superior – emotional
Deflated – emotional
Let-down – emotional
Inferior – emotional
Small – emotional
Insignificant – emotional
Empty – emotional
Defeated – emotional
Elated – emotional
Euphoric – emotional..

Vocabulary – Family for B2 opinion essay

Essay title

What is the role of parents in today’s society?

Nucleur family
Extended Family
Father / Fatherhood
Mother / Motherhood
Parents / Parenthood
Child / Childhood
Single parent
Latchkey kids
Upbringing
Social values
Social norms
Moral upbringing
Socially acceptable

Childcare
Raise a child
Bring up a child
Nurture

Rising violence
Rising sexual violence
Rising suicide
Lack of empathy
Lack of social skills

Compras – vocabulario en inglés B2 FCE C1 CAE

vocabulario por compras en Inglés. B2 y C1

  • advertising campaign: a series of advertisements to persuade people to buy something
  • big brand names: large well-known companies or product names
  • to be careful with money: to not over-spend
  • carrier bag: bags (usually plastic) supplied by shops
  • customer service: the degree to which customers are treated well
  • to get into debt: to owe money
  • to give someone the hard sell: to put pressure on someone to buy something
  • high street names: well-known shops
  • independent stores: small shops independent of large companies
  • local shops: community shops
  • loyalty card: a card issued by a shop to allow customers to save money on the basis of what they spend
  • must-have product: a product that is very popular that a lot of people want to have
  • to be on a tight budget: to have a limited amount of money to spend
  • to be on commission: to pay someone in relation to the amount they sell
  • a pay in cash: to pay for something using coins or paper money
  • to pay the full price: to pay the full amount for something
  • to pick up a bargain: to buy something much cheaper than the normal price
  • to run up a credit card bill: to owe money on a credit card
  • to shop around: to try different shops to find the best deal
  • shop assistant: the person who serves customers
  • to shop until you drop: to do a lot of shopping
  • to slash prices: to reduce prices a great deal
  • to snap up a bargain: to buy something quickly that is being sold cheaply
  • summer sales: a period in the year when things are sold cheaply
  • to try something on: to see if an item of clothing fits or is suitable
  • to be value for money: to be worth the cost
  • window shopping: to visit a store to look at items without the intention of buying anything

Adverbios Inglés – B2 C1

adverbios en Inglés para B2 y C1

In my opinion adverbs are equally as important as the verbs they describe.

A verb contains no information other than if it’s a fact about an action/state or the action/state in progress.

Only an adverb can give the details needed for how that action or state is done. Without them the language is boring, sterile.

Adverbs fall into 3 main categories.
Frequency
To tell us how often the action is performed or state is reached.
Used in all tenses.
example
She always feels sick when we travel by car.

Intensity
To tell us about the action/state’s strength, depth, impact and importance
Used in all tenses
example
He walked slowly to the door.

Narrative
To tell us emotional, metaphorical information about the action/state.
Used in all tenses
example
He walked painfully to the car.

Mixed adverbs add more impact and information.
example
He walked slowly, painfully towards the door.

Order
This is very complex and I would recommend that you put the adverb after the verb. There are some intensifying adverbs that must go before the verb, for example hardly.

There are many verbs that cannot go before the verb but this is because of the nature of the verb and usage.
example
The bell rang loudly. Yes
The bell loudly rang. Grammatically Yes. Usage No.

Some adverbs can be put both before and after the verb but there is a shift of emphasis.
example
They quickly kissed. = the time before they kissed was very short.
They kissed quickly. = the kiss was very short.

Adverbs that are also adjectives.
A good example of this is hard/hardly.

Hard as an adjective describes difficulty.
example
The exam was hard.

Hard as an adverb is an intensifier.
example
He studied hard for the exam.

Hardly is an intensifying adverb meaning very little.
example
He hardly studied for his exam.

Irregular adverbs
Most adverbs are formed by adding the suffix ly to an adjective but not all.

For example – good/well

Adverbs + Adjectives
We tend to use intensifiers a lot with adjectives. They always go before the adjective.
example
She is suitably skilled for the job.

The only problem is understanding that you cannot use all intensifying adverbs with every adjective. Because of this we have extreme adjectives and extreme intensifiers.

0-90% intensity
A little, Quite, Fairly, Rather, Very, Incredibly

90-100% intensity
Completely, Totally, Absolutely

These adverbs must then be used with the correct adjective depending on the adjectives own intensity.

For example – with heat
0-90%
warm, hot
It was a rather hot day90-100%
boiling, roasting, sweltering, scorching
It was scorching weather.

Really
Really is an exception and can be used to intensify all adjectives.

Some adverbs can be tricky to use because their function changes depending on context and even intonation.
For example.
A bit
Positivequantifier
example
A bit of milk. = some milk

Positive intensifier
example
A bit special. = very special

Negative – intensifier
example
A bit expensive. = very expensive.


Intonation/emphasis
I’d rather you pay it personally. = emphasis on you making payment.
I’d rather you pay it personally. = emphasis on my opinion.

Vocabulary – walking

​Walk – usually with purpose

I’ll walk to/from the shop.

Stroll – with/without purpose

I’ll stroll to the shop/about/around the town.

Meander – usually without purpose

I’ll have a meander about/around the town 

Wander – usually without purpose

I’ll have a wander about/around the town.

Amble – with/without purpose

I’ll amble to the shop/about around the town.

Mooch – usually without purpose

I’ll mooch about/around the town.

Vocabulary – sleep

Sleepiness – noun
Sleep – noun/verb
Sleepily – adverb
Sleepy – adjective
Asleep – adjective

Verb & adjective collocations
Fall asleep
Drift asleep
Lull asleep (lullaby – a song sung to babies to help them fall asleep)

Phrasal verbs
Nod off
Doze off

Adjective – noun collocations
Heavy sleep / heavy sleeper
Light sleep / light sleeper

Adjective – adjective collocations
sound asleep

​Adverbs Just, Yet, Already

Usage – perfect tenses

Yet
*Yet is always negative.

subj. + have + participle + yet
I haven’t eaten dinner yet.

Or

subj. + have + adverb + infinitive
I have yet to eat dinner (this is very formal and not a perfect tense structure)

Just, already

subj. + have + adverb + participle
I have just eaten dinner.
I have already eaten dinner.

Conditionals

Conditional structures can be very complicated and complex. But in their simplest forms follow these basic rules.

condition clause / result clause

You can reverse the position of the clauses and they mean the same.

result clause / condition clause

The possibility of each conditional changes from always true to no possibility.

Zero – an eternal truth
pres. simple + pres. simple
If you drink poison you die.

First – an imagined present with a future result – possible
pres. simple + will/modal
If I study hard I will/might/could/should pass my exam.

Second – an imagined present with a present result – low possibility
past simple + modal 
If I studied harder I would/might/could/should be smarter.

Third – an imagined past with a past result – impossible
past  perfect + would/could/might + present perfect
If I had studied harder I would/might/could have been smarter.

We have alternatives to if… as long as, even if, whether, providing, unless.

The following sentences all mean the same and have the same result – no rain = beach
If it doesn’t rain I will go to the beach.
As long as it doesn’t rain I will go to the beach.
Providing it doesn’t rain I will go to the beach.
I will go to the beach unless it rains.

But these do not – no rain/rain = beach
I will go to the beach whether it rains or not.
Even if it rains I will go to the beach.

We very often use if/whether in non conditional structures but we understand that behind the structure there is an unspoken condition that we are not being told.

That job in China is great but whether (or not)  I go is another thing.
That job in China is great but If I go is another thing.

Vocabulary – healthy options

Go on a diet, Put on a diet, Calorie controlled diet, Break a diet, Yo-yo diet/dieter, Do exercise,Train (gym)

Healthy options, Healthy choices, Healthy body, healthy mind, Sound in body, sound in mind, Healthy lifestyle, Active/sedentary lifestyle

Vitamin rich, Protein rich, Rich in fatty acids, Low in salt, Low in fat, Salt free, Sugar free, Additive free

​Expressions with mind…

Never mind = don’t worry, forget it…
“Mum I failed my exam”.
” Never mind, you can try again.”

On my mind = something you are worried about…
“The exam has been on my mind.”

Out of my mind = worried, drugged…
“I’ve been out of my mind with worry over the exam.”

Never you mind = for someone else to forget, not worry about something.
” Mum, why did uncle Carlos touch your bottom?”

“Never you mind,” says mum.

To describe personality…
Narrow minded
Broad minded
Open minded
Closed minded

Direct and Indirect questions

The main types of question forms with examples. For B1 and above.

Direct

The structure depends on the type of question.

Question Word
Who, whose, what, where, when, why, how

Question word or wh- words that begin a direct question usually have the structure…

question word + aux + subject/+verb
example
how old are you?
where do you live?

Remember we use the verbs do, be, have as auxiliaries.


Subject = Question word
When the subject of the question is the question word we use the following structure.

question word + verb + object
example
What makes you happy?
Who said that?


Yes/No
If the answer to a question can only be yes or no then we use the aux and this structure.

aux + subj + verb
example
Do you like paella?
Have you eaten dinner?


Indirect
We cannot use the auxillary DO in indirect questions. They can be divided into 2 clauses, the polite expression, and the question. The structure is…

expression + question word + subject + verb
example
– May I ask what time the film starts?


Yes/No
example
Would you tell me if/whether you like fish?
(not, do you like..)


Expressions include..
May I ask…
Would you tell me…
Can/could you tell me…
Would you mind telling me…


Here’s some examples…
How short is the book?
Would you tell me how short the book is?
Has she finished her exam?
May I ask if/whether she has finished her exam?

Formal letter of complaint

Writing a formal letter of complaint. 

Formality is used to put distance between the writer and reader.

1. Remember to begin your letter,
To whom it may concern,

2. Finish it with,
I await your response and solution to the problem.

3. Don’t use contractions.

4. Use formal verbs, example…
Get – receive
Want – expect
Buy – purchase
Work/Play – function

5. Use passive structures.
Example…
When I opened the box I found that the player was damaged.

6. Use inversions. Example…
Had I known it was defective.

7. Keep it simple and clear.

8. Use more formal adjectives and adverbs to strengthen your feelings.

Example
The level of service was outrageous.
I would very much appreciate.


Here’s an example of a short letter of complaint. The first of each paragraph is informal, the second (in italics) is corrected and is formal.

Hello,
To whom it may concern,

The other day I bought a new mobile phone from you.
I recently, Tuesday the 7th of March,  purchased a mobile phone from your Regents Street store, London.

The assistant told me that it was easy to use and I could use the internet.
I was assured by a member of staff that it was both simple to operate and Internet enabled.

When I got home and tried it I was unhappy because the instructions were complicated and not like he said.
However, upon arriving home and attempting to power on the device, I found it simply would not function.

After trying to connect to the Internet I couldn’t.
I was therefore unable to access either the telephone or the internet. Outrageous!

The assistant didn’t tell me the truth and I am not happy about it. I want to bring it back and get a refund. Tell me how.
I was completely misled by the assistant, and the entire experience has left me bitterly disappointed.

I expect full recompense and await a swift response.

Yours sincerely.
Good day.

wish & regret

​Sentence transformation and hypothetical meaning with Wish and Regret.

Rules.

When speaking hypothetically about a present or future situation with Wish or Regret we put either the auxiliary or the main verb into a past tense. We do not put both if there is an auxillary and a main verb – only the auxiliary.

Present with Wish

I wish he studied more. 

I wish he was studying more.

I wish he would study more.

I wish he didn’t make so many mistakes.

Past with Wish

If we are talking about a past situation we use past perfect.

I wish he had studied more.

I wish he hadn’t made so many mistakes.

Note

We don’t use past perfect continuous.

Regret

The rule for Regret is different.

In present 

This is used for formal announcements and only with certain verbs, for example inform, tell, say.

I regret to tell you that you have not got the job.

In past 

We can use either verb+ing or present perfect continuous to talk about the past.

I regret telling her.

I regret having told her.

Environment vocabulary

Deforestation

Decimation of flora and fauna

Slash and burn

Human encroachment

Soil erosion
Global warming

Ozone depletion

Greenhouse effect

Greenhouse gases

Polar melt

Rising sea levels

Coastal erosion

Climate change
Pollution

Fossil fuels – coal, oil, shale

Carbon footprint

Carbon tax

Renewables – tidal, solar, wind

Biofuels – plant derived energy

Energy efficient

Recycling

Car sharing
Natural disaster

Environmental catastrophe

Legislation

FCE Computer Based Exam Practice Test

Please note these links will open in a new window or tab and require Firefox.

FCE Computer based reading exam – click the  link

Answer key for reading
The following link will load a PDF into your browser which you can see, download or print.

FCE Reading answers


FCE Use of English Computer based examclick the link

Answer key for Use of English
The following link will load a PDF into your browser which you can see, download or print.

FCE use of English Answers


FCE Writing Computer based exam – click the link

Passive Sentences

Passive voice verbs are used in writing much more often than in speech, and they are used in some types of writing much more often than in others. Passives are used more in journalism (newspapers, magazines) than in fiction (novels, stories), but most journalists and fiction writers use far more active than passive sentences. However, passives are very common in all types of scientific and technical writing. Scientific articles often contain more passive than active sentences. You should not use passive voice verbs unless you have a good reason.

  1. Relationship between active and passive:
  2. The objectof the active verb is the subject of the passive verb (“English” in the example sentences below). Therefore, verbs which cannot be followed by objects (intransitive verbscannot be used in passive voice.

These are some common intransitive verbs: appear, arrive, come, cry, die, go, happen, occur, rain, sleep, stay, walk. These verbs cannot be used in passive voice.

  1. The passive verb always contains a form of the auxiliary verb be. The form of bein the passive verb phrase corresponds to the form of the main verb in the active verb phrase (see the underlined words in the example sentences below). That is, if the active main verb is simple present tense, then a simple present tense form of be is used in the passive verb phrase; if the active main verb is -ING, then the -ING form of be is used in the passive verb phrase; and so on.
  2. The main verb in a passive predicate verb phrase is always the participleform of the verb.
  3. Some examplesof active and passive sentences:

ACTIVE: They speak English.
PASSIVE: English is spoken.

ACTIVE: They spoke English.
PASSIVE: English was spoken.

ACTIVE: They will speak English.
PASSIVE: English will be spoken.

ACTIVE: They are going to speak English.
PASSIVE: English is going to be spoken.

ACTIVE: They are speaking English.
PASSIVE: English is being spoken.

ACTIVE: They were speaking English.
PASSIVE: English was being spoken.

ACTIVE: They have spoken English.
PASSIVE: English has been spoken.

ACTIVE: They had spoken English.
PASSIVE: English had been spoken.

ACTIVE: They will have spoken English.
PASSIVE: English will have been spoken.

  1. Perfect progressiveverb forms are generally used in active voice only. That is, these are good English sentences:

ACTIVE: They have been speaking English.
ACTIVE: They had been speaking English.
ACTIVE: They will have been speaking English.

But sentences like these are rarely used:

PASSIVE: English has been being spoken.
PASSIVE: English had been being spoken.
PASSIVE: English will have been being spoken.

  1. Most passive sentences do not contain an agent; all active sentences contain an agent.
  2. An agentis the subject of the active verb. In the example sentences above, the agent is “they” in all the active sentences; the passive sentences do not contain an agent.
  3. When a passive sentence contains an agent, it is in a prepositional phrase following the verb. For example:

English is spoken by them.

In the following sentences, the noun “teachers” is the agent in both sentences. “Teachers” is also the subject of the active verb, but “exams” is the subject of the passive verb.

ACTIVE: Teachers prepare exams.

PASSIVE: Exams are prepared by teachers.

  1. You should not use passive voice unless you have a good reason.

Here are some good reasons for using passive voice:

  1. Passive voice is often used when the agent(the doer of an action; the subject of an active verb) is obvious, unknown, or unnecessary:

Oranges are grown in California.
Toyotas are made in Japan.
Her purse was stolen.

  1. Passive voice is often used when the agentis known, but the speaker/writer doesn’t want to mention it:

She was given bad advice.
A mistake has been made.

  1. Passive voice is often used when the agentis very general such as people or somebody.

English is spoken here.
The door should be locked.

  1. Passive voice is often used when the speaker/writer wants to emphasize a result:

Several thousand people were killed by the earthquake.

  1. Passive voice is often used when the speaker/writer wants to keep the same subjectfor two or more verbs but this would not be possible if both verbs were the same voice (active or passive).

For example, in a conversation about George, a speaker would probably use sentence a below rather than sentence b (both sentences are correct).

  1. George hadseveral interviews before he was hired by a software company.
    b. George had several interviews before a software company hired him.

Countable & Uncountable nouns (1)

Nouns can be countable or uncountable. When you learn a new noun you should make a note of whether it is countable or uncountable as we use different words with countables and uncountables.
Countable nouns

  • There is a cat in the garden.
  • There are some birds in the trees.

For positive sentences we can use a/an or some (with a plural verb form)

  • There isn’t a dog in the garden.
  • There aren’t any birds in the tree.

For negatives we can use a/an or any (with a plural verb form).

  • Is there an orange on the tree?
  • Are there any chairs in the garden?
  • How many chairs are there?

In questions we use a/anany or how many.

Uncountable nouns

  • There is some milk on the floor.

Uncountable nouns have no plural. The verb form is singular and we use some.

  • Is there any sugar?
  • How much wine is there?

In questions we can use any or how much.

Other expressions of quantity

  • There are a lot of apples on the trees.
  • There is a lot of snow on the road.

A lot of can be used with both countable and uncountable nouns.

  • Bill Gates has much money.

Notice that we don’t usually use ‘much’ or ‘many’ in positive sentences. We use ‘a lot of’.

  • Bill Gates has a lot of money.
  • There’s a lot of beer but there isn’t much wine.
  • There are a lot of carrots but there aren’t many potatoes.

We use not many with countable nouns and not much with uncountable nouns.

 


 

Countable & Uncountable nouns (2)

Some words can be both countable and uncountable depending on how they are used.

  • Would you like a chocolate?
  • Would you like some chocolate?

In a box of chocolates, the chocolates are countable and you can take one.
When you have a bar of chocolate the chocolate is uncountable and you can take some.

There are several other nouns that can be both countable and uncountable.

  • Can I have a glass of water, please?
  • There’s some broken glass on the pavement.

Glass’ is one. Many foodstuffs can be countable or uncountable. Think about the difference between ‘an ice cream’ and ‘some ice cream’ and ‘a coffee’ and ‘some coffee

‘few/a few’ and ‘little/a little’

We use few and a few with countable nouns and we use little and a little with uncountable nouns.

  • A few friends are coming round for dinner tonight.
  • We’ve got a little time before our train leaves. Shall we go to a museum?

A few and a little both mean ‘some’. They have a positive meaning.

  • I’ve got very few friends here. I feel really lonely.
  • We’ve got very little time – hurry up or we’ll miss the train.

Few and little both mean ‘almost none’. They have a negative meaning.

Commonly confused words

  • I’d like an information about train times please
  • I’d like some information about train times please.

Although ‘information’ is countable in many languages, it is uncountable in English.

  • Have you had any news from Pete?
  • I haven’t brought much luggage with me.
  • Can you give me some advice please?

As well as information, the following words are all uncountable: newsluggageadvicefurnitureweathertravel.

Articles

THE

Articles in English are invariable. That is, they do not change according to the gender or number of the noun they refer to, e.g. the boy, the woman, the children

‘The’ is used:

  1. to refer to something which has already been mentioned.

An elephant and a mouse fell in love.

The mouse loved the elephant’s long trunk,
and
 the elephant loved the mouse’s tiny nose.

  1. when both the speaker and listener know what is being talked about, even if it has not been mentioned before.

‘Where’s the bathroom?
‘It’s on
 the first floor.’

  1. in sentences or clauses where we define or identify a particular person or object:

The man who wrote this book is famous.
‘Which car did you scratch?’ ‘The red one.
My house is
 the one with a blue door.’

  1. to refer to objects we regard as unique:

the sun, the moon, the world

  1. before superlatives and ordinal numbers:

the highest building, the first page, the last chapter.

  1. with adjectives, to refer to a whole group of people:

the Japanese, the old

  1. with names of geographical areas and oceans:

the Caribbean, the Sahara, the Atlantic

  1. with decades, or groups of years:

she grew up in the seventies


A / AN

Use a’ with nouns starting with a consonant (letters that are not vowels), 
‘an’
 with nouns starting with a vowel (a,e,i,o,u)

Examples

  • Aboy
  • Anapple
  • Acar
  • Anorange
  • Ahouse
  • Anopera

Note
An before an h mute – an hour, an honour.
A before u and eu when they sound like ‘you’: a european, a university, a unit

The indefinite article is used:

  • to refer to something for the first time:
    An elephant
    and a mouse fell in love.
    Would you like
     a drink?
    I’ve finally got
     a good job.
  • to refer to a particular member of a group or class

Examples

  • with names of jobs:
    John isa doctor.
    Mary is training to be
     an engineer.
    He wants to be
     a dancer.
  • with nationalities and religions:
    John isan Englishman.
    Kate is
     a Catholic.
  • with musical instruments:
    Sherlock Holmes was playinga violin when the visitor arrived.
    (BUT to describe the activity we say “He plays the violin.”)
  • with names of days:
    I was born ona Thursday
  • to refer to a kind of, or example of something:
    the mouse hada tiny nose
    the elephant had
     a long trunk
    it was
     a very strange car
  • with singular nouns, after the words‘what’ and ‘such’:
    What a shame!
    She’s such
     a beautiful girl.
  • meaning ‘one’, referring to a single object or person:
    I’d likean orange and two lemons please.
    The burglar took
     a diamond necklace and a valuable painting.

Notice also that we usually say a hundred, a thousand, a million.

NOTE: that we use ‘one to add emphasis or to contrast with other numbers: 
I don’t know one person who likes eating elephant meat.
We’ve got six computers but only one printer.

Adjectives & Prepositions

 

Some adjectives go with certain prepositions. There is no real pattern – you need to learn them as you meet them. Here are some examples but remember that there are many other adjective + preposition combinations that are not covered here.

With ‘at’

  • I’m quite good at English but I’m bad at maths and I’m terrible at physics.

With ‘for’

  • Jogging is good for your health but smoking is bad for you.
  • The town is famous for its cheese.

As well as ‘good for’, ‘bad for’ and ‘famous for’ we also say ‘qualified for’ ‘ready for’, ‘responsible for’, ‘suitable for’ and several others.

With ‘of’

I’m perfectly capable of doing it myself, thank you.
I’m very fond of this old sweatshirt.

As well as ‘capable of’ and ‘fond of’ we also say ‘aware of’, ‘full of’, ‘tired of’ and several others.

With ‘with’

  • We’re very pleased with your progress.
  • You’re not still angry with me are you?

As well as ‘pleased with’ and ‘angry with’ we also say ‘bored with’, ‘delighted with’, ‘satisfied with’ and several others.

With ‘to’

  • She’s the one who’s married to a doctor, isn’t she?
  • You’ll be responsible to the head of the Finance department.

Notice that you can be responsible for something but responsible to someone.

Other common adjective + preposition combinations include ‘interested in’ and ‘keen on’. It’s a good idea to make a note of new combinations in your vocabulary notebook as you meet them. Remember that a preposition is followed by a noun or a gerund (‘ing’ form).

Do & Make

When do you use DO?

DO is used as follows:

1. DO is used when talking about work, jobs or tasks. Note, they do not produce any physical object.

Have you done your homework?I have guests visiting tonight so I should start doing the housework now.I wouldn’t like to do that job.

2. DO is used when we refer to activities in general without being specific. In these cases, we normally use words like thing, something, nothing, anything, everything etc.

Hurry up! I’ve got things to do!Don’t just stand there – do something!Is there anything I can do to help you?

3. We sometimes use DO to replace a verb when the meaning is clear or obvious. This is more common in informal spoken English:

Do I need to do my hair? (do = brush or comb)Have you done the dishes yet? (done = washed)I’ll do the kitchen if you do the lawns (do = clean, do = mow)

Remember Do can also be as an auxiliary verb (for making questions in the present tense – Do you like chocolate?) For more about Do used in this case, see our page about Do vs Does. Here we will be talking about Do as a normal verb.

When do you use MAKE?

Make is for producing, constructing, creating or building something new.

It is also used to indicate the origin of a product or the materials that are used to make something.

His wedding ring is made of gold.The house was made of adobe.Wine is made from grapes.The watches were made in Switzerland

We also use Make for producing an action or reaction:

Onions make your eyes water.You make me happy.It’s not my fault. My brother made me do it!

You make after certain nouns about plans and decisions:

Make the arrangements, make a choice

We use Make with nouns about speaking and certain sounds:

Make a commentmake a noisemake a speech

We use Make with Food, Drink and Meals:

Make a cakemake a cup of teamake dinner

Compare Do and Make

A: You have to make a cake for Simon.

B: I’ll do it later.

Notice how in the response the verb DO is used. This is because the meaning is clear and to avoid saying “I’ll make it later.” which could sound repetitive.

¿Cuál es la diferencia entre los exámenes de Cambridge por ordenador o papel?

Español abajo
I’m often asked what the difference is between the Computer based Cambridge English exam and the exam on Paper. Here’s my thoughts.

Paper

Advantages
Most students have completed exams on paper and feel very comfortable doing it this way. Just as at University your answers must be copied onto a separate answer sheet. You are able to carry out the strategy for each part, underlining keywords, writing synonyms etc.

Disadvantages
Fewer exam dates have an impact on the number of students taking the exam which is usually quite high with as many as 100 students sitting the exam. This affects the Listening, with people sneezing, coughing, as well as problems with echoes due to the large room needed for so many candidates. The need to copy your answers onto an answer sheet can also cause problems if you do not pay very close attention to the time – not copying all of them, or completing the wrong sections can result in a failed exam purely for technical reasons rather than level.

Computer

Advantages
There are many more exam dates and so fewer candidates in the exam. The experience itself is usually less intimidating with as few as 6 students sitting the exam. Listening is done with headphones and you are able to control the volume so it is optimum for you.

Disadvantages
Perhaps the greatest problem is your own ability using the software for the exam as well as typing in English. There are Computer based practice tests online and we also provide computer based tests for you to try. You can also watch a tutorial that helps you understand how to use the software but for some students this makes little difference – it’s hard enough remembering English structures and words without worrying about how to use the computer!

There is also the problem of how to do the strategy for each part. Although the software allows you to do this it isn’t very intuitive and slows you down. I would only recommend the Computer based exam if –

You are very comfortable using a PC
– You don’t rely on doing the strategy for each part
– You have a natural ability with listening as it is impossible to do the strategy for this part.

Recommendation
A good teacher will know your key strengths and weaknesses and will guide you as to which exam to take. They should also allow you to practice both the paper based and computer based exam to be sure there are no problems. At Queens students receive 20 hours of Paper based Exam Practice classes as well as for PC. If you do not receive the same I suggest you look for a better school. 

Practice computer based exams

The following links might help you decide which exam and what type is best for you. These links will redirect you to a different site.

Computer based Practice Test – all levels
Computer Based Tutorial – all levels
B1 Computer based tutorial
B1 Computer based practice test
FCE Computer based tutorial
FCE Computer based practice test

A menudo me preguntan cuál es la diferencia entre el examen Cambridge English basado en computadora y el examen en papel. Aquí están mis pensamientos.

La mayoría de los estudiantes han completado los exámenes en papel y se sienten muy cómodos haciéndolo de esta manera. Al igual que en la Universidad, sus respuestas deben copiarse en una hoja de respuestas separada. Puede llevar a cabo la estrategia para cada parte, subrayando palabras clave, escribiendo sinónimos, etc.

Desventajas
Menos fechas de examen tienen un impacto en el número de estudiantes que toman el examen, que generalmente es bastante alto con hasta 100 estudiantes que se presentan al examen. Esto afecta la audición, con personas estornudando, tosiendo, así como problemas con los ecos debido a la gran sala necesaria para tantos candidatos. La necesidad de copiar sus respuestas en una hoja de respuestas también puede causar problemas si no presta mucha atención al tiempo: no copiar todas ellas o completar las secciones incorrectas puede dar lugar a un examen reprobado simplemente por razones técnicas en lugar de nivel .

Ventajas
Hay muchas más fechas de examen y, por lo tanto, menos candidatos en el examen. La experiencia en sí misma suele ser menos intimidante con tan solo 6 estudiantes en el examen. La escucha se realiza con auriculares y puede controlar el volumen para que sea óptimo para usted.

Desventajas
Quizás el mayor problema es su propia habilidad para usar el software para el examen y escribir en inglés. Hay pruebas de práctica basadas en computadora en línea y también ofrecemos pruebas basadas en computadora para que las pruebe. También puede ver un tutorial que lo ayuda a comprender cómo usar el software, pero para algunos estudiantes esto hace poca diferencia: ¡es bastante difícil recordar las estructuras y palabras en inglés sin preocuparse por cómo usar la computadora!

También está el problema de cómo hacer la estrategia para cada parte. Aunque el software le permite hacer esto, no es muy intuitivo y lo ralentiza. Solo recomendaría el examen por computadora si

-Te sientes muy cómodo usando una PC
– No confías en hacer la estrategia para cada parte
– Tienes una habilidad natural para escuchar, ya que es imposible hacer la estrategia para esta parte.

Recomendación: Un buen maestro conocerá sus fortalezas y debilidades clave y lo guiará en cuanto a qué examen tomar. También deberían permitirle practicar tanto el examen en papel como en computadora para asegurarse de que no haya problemas. En Queens, los estudiantes reciben 20 horas de clases de práctica de examen en papel, así como para PC. Si no recibe lo mismo, le sugiero que busque una mejor escuela.

Practique exámenes basados ​​en computadora Los siguientes enlaces pueden ayudarlo a decidir qué examen y qué tipo es mejor para usted. Estos enlaces lo redirigirán a un sitio diferente.

Computer based Practice Test – all levels
Computer Based Tutorial – all levels
B1 Computer based tutorial
B1 Computer based practice test
FCE Computer based tutorial
FCE Computer based practice test