Bullet lists – inglés


Creating a bullet or numbered list in English.
There are some simple rules about bullet and numbered lists in English, and how to write them well.

You should not write a long or complex sentence after a bullet or numbered list, use between 1 – 5 words only. Brevity or is key.

The first word form following each bullet  in your list must be consistent, but depends on the preceding sentence and word form that introduces the list, and also depending on the verb pattern normally used.

Examples
Verb + object = articles
Students reported :
– a lack of space
– an inability to focus
– a clumsy login procedure

Verb + pattern (ing)
Students suggested:
– recycling more paper
– saving water
– reducing heating times

Verb + noun
Students considered the following as important:
– Freedom to experiment
– Enforcement of school policies
– Reciprocation of shared resources

Verb + pattern (infinitive)
Students expressed a desire to:
– Share resources
– Exchange information
– Practice more speaking

Escritura formal en inglés

Writing formal English made easy.

Tips for writing a semi formal/formal Report in English (B2 FCE, C1 CAE).

The most common mistake you will make is with articles, and specifically the. Typical mistakes are with abstract nouns, for example…

The education is important. Incorrect
Education is an abstract, uncountable noun.

Education is important. Correct

Here’s a tip.
If you write a noun that finishes with…
• tion – ex. separation
• ment – ex. excitement
• ness – ex. happiness
• ism – ex. communism
• ality – ex. formality
• ity – ex. stupidity
• ogy – ex. technology


Think carefully – they are abstract!

You can use the with an abstract noun if you add a countable or more specific noun.

Example
The education system. Correct

Another simple trick is to convert active informal sentences into passive formal structures or using more formal word forms.

You told me.
I was informed

I asked for.
I requested

He gave me.
I was given

Everyone agreed.
It was the general consensus

We decided.
It was agreed.

Transforming a basic informal paragraph into a formal paragraph is also very easy. Below is an example from a Report.

Informal
I gave students a questionnaire which they completed. I asked for their opinions and feedback on the situation at school. They responded,
• lack of space
• old software


Formal
Students were given (passive) a questionnaire to complete (infinitive of purpose). Questions were designed (passive) to solicit (infinitive of purpose / no pronouns) opinions and feedback on the current situation (colocation) at school. Responses (direct subject) were as follows: (fixed phrase/correct punctuation)
• lack of space ✓
outdated software (word choice).

Creating a bullet or numbered list
There are some simple rules about bullet and numbered lists.

You should not write a sentence after a bullet or numbered list, use between 1 – 5 words only.

The first word form in your list must be consistent, but depends on the preceding sentence and word form that introduces the list, depending on the verb pattern normally used.

Examples
Students reported : (articles)
– a lack of space
– an inability to focus
– a clumsy login procedure

Students suggested: (present participle)
– recycling more paper
– saving water
– reducing heating times

Students considered the following as important: (abstract nouns)
– Freedom to experiment
– Enforcement of school policies
– Reciprocation of shared resources

Students expressed a desire to: (infinitive)
– Share resources
– Exchange information
– Practice more speaking

¡Noticias!

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Ubicada cerca de Plaxa de Toros, nuestra escuela principal en Padre Mariana está a diez minutos de la Universidad.

Con profesores nativos y precios bajos, ¿qué estás esperando?

Discurso colaborativo – Cambridge B2 FCE First

Cambridge English First (B2) Collaborative speaking. Topic –the environment
Keywords climate change, fossil fuels, consumption, reduction, global warming, car sharing schemes, deforestation, ozone layer, contamination, recycling, aviation.

Useful linkers – in spite of, despite, however, although, nevertheless, also, but

Useful phrases – I totally agree, I couldn’t agree more, you’re right, I completely disagree, you’re crazy


Lucia and Maria practising the collaborative part of the Cambridge FCE B2 exam – volume is low.

Comments


Maria – white T-Shirt
Grammatical structures
Generally excellent with only 1 or 2 minor mistakes that do not impede understanding
Vocabulary
A little limited, could have included higher level nouns plus linkers and connectors. 1 or 2 small mistakes with word form.
Fluency
Very good with clear pronunciation and a natural rhythm. Very conversational, as it should be, and with only slight nervousness.
Global achievement of task
Excellent.
General
As Maria is taking her exam in December 2019 there is plenty of time to fine-tune her speaking performance.

Lucia – black T-Shirt
Grammatical structures
Generally very good with some minor mistakes that do not impede understanding
Vocabulary
Again a little limited, could have included higher level nouns plus linkers and connectors. 1 or 2 small mistakes with word form, for example consume (v) should be consumption (noun).
Fluency
Generally good with clear pronunciation and a good rhythm. Very conversational, as it should be, nut with quite a lot of nervousness.
She looked at the examiner when her attention should have been on Maria.
Global achievement of task
Excellent.
General
As Lucia is taking her exam in December 2019 there is plenty of time to fine-tune her speaking performance


¿Qué fechas son los exámenes de Cambridge?

Cambridge English Exams in Alicante / San Vicente 2019
Clave – Fecha de exámen | Último día de matrícula


Type Paper Based
12.10.19 Closed
05.12.19 | 29/10/2019
Type Computer Based
24/10/2019 | Closed
12/09/2019 | 28/08/2019
24/10/2019 | 09/10/2019
30/11/2019 | 15/11/2019
12/12/2019 | 28/11/2019
19/12/2019 | 28/11/2019


Type Paper Based
14/12/2019 | 03/11/2019
Type Computer Based
27/09/2019 | 13/09/2019
19/10/2019 | 04/10/2019
27/09/2019 | 13/09/2019
22/11/2019 | 05/11/2019


Type Paper Based
14/12/2019 | 03/11/2019
Type Computer Based
21/09/2019 | 06/09/2019
26/10/2019 | 11/10/2019
09/11/2019 | 27/10/2019


Type Paper Based
23/11/2019 | 08/11/2019

Fechas para 2020 próximamente

Vocabulario – B1/B2 adjectives for rented housing

Below is typical English vocabulary used by Real Estate Agents to describe rental properties.

Character
Traditional
Charming
Chic
Contemporary
Modern
Light
Spacious
Well proportioned
Well appointed rooms
Compact
Spectacular
Central location
City living
Easy walking distance
Amenities etc. on your doorstep
Ample parking
Short term/long term lease

The double meanings of English

​A language evolves in response to the needs if it’s people and the conventions of society and the English language is no exception.

A good example of this is how and why English has so many words, phrasal verbs and expressions that have a sexual connotation. This is something students ask me about all the time, especially in C1 and C2.

For example there are many many phrasal verbs that have a sexual meaning, by simply changing the preposition or adding another we can completely alter meaning.

Consider…
Go down – to reduce
Go down on – to perform oral sex
Jack (something) in – to stop an activity
Jack off – to masturbate
Touch (something) up – to reapply makeup or paint
Touch (someone) – to touch someone in a sexual way
Get on with (someone) – have a good relationship
Get it on with (someone) – to have sex

So why exactly does the English Language contain so many references to sex?

During the long reign of queen Victoria sex became taboo – on the surface. In reality it was a very promiscuous era with rampant prostitution. But to be acceptable in society you had to appear to be decent, wholesome, prim and proper, moral and chaste. Society wore a mask. It had less to do with religion than with social class and breeding and the need for higher classes to distance themselves from the lower classes who were believed to be morally and intellectually inferior. This mode of thinking was perpetuated and spread with fervor throughout the Colonies of the British Empire.

This continued into the 1920’s when society began to change and become more liberal, thanks in part to the First World War and the sudden sense of liberation felt at its close. Women from the higher classes who had previously been forced to wear tight fitting corsets and follow social norms, had also discovered a new sense of power and freedom after working in munitions factories and found themselves working cheek by jowl with lower class working girls. This is when the double entendre became normal and we would say one thing but actually mean another, in relation to our sexuality and behaviour. Slowly the language began to change, helped by playwrights like Noel coward.

This play on words finally grew into a huge form of entertainment in the 1970’s with people like Benny Hill and the Carry On films. British television was full of this type of comedy and in a way that wasn’t permitted on American television, which was and still is actually quite reserved, especially about sex.  An entire generation of British kids were raised on these types of programme and film, and so the sexual double entendre became as much a part of our social fabric as fish and chips or Big Ben.

To really understand what this type of humour is I recommend looking for Carry On movies on YouTube, any will be packed chock full of innuendo, though perhaps Carry On Cleo will illustrate it more clearly. These films remain firm British favourites and will hopefully continue to be so.

Vocabulario inglés – el cuerpo – B2/C1

Below are adjectives and nouns in English to describe people and how they look.

Body
Obese, fat, chubby, corpulent, slim, slender, sinuous, lithe, svelte, thin, skinny, muscular, big, big boned, stocky, rotund, pot-bellied, small-framed, small-boned, petite, short, tall.

Face
Beautiful, handsome, pretty, stunning, striking, distinguished, gorgeous; drop dead gorgeous, elfen, boyish, hideous, grotesque, repugnant, baby faced

Hair
Short haired, long haired, fair haired, dark haired, thinning, balding, receding, unruly, neat, tidy, fine, fly away, frizzy, curly, wavey, straight, wispy, thick, glossy, dull

Nouns
A stunner +
A babe +
A dreamboat +
A hottie +
A pig
A dog
A looker +
A hunk +
A beefcake +

Vocabulario inglés – celebrity

English vocabulary for Celebrity, B2 level.

Nouns
Fame
Infamy (-)
Glamour
Glitz
Gossip
Stardom
Starlet
Star
Celebrity
Icon
Role model
Gold digger

Phrases and expressions
boy band/girl group
a male/female band who often just sing and dance

to be destined for stardom
to have a high chance of becoming famous

rising star
becoming famous

talent shows
contests involving people with skills like singers

to have a bright future ahead of them
their later life will be positive

to be an overnight success
to become famous very quickly and gain lots of attention

to become famous almost overnight
to get fame very quickly

to be a household name
a famous person whose name is well-known

at his/her peak
when he/she was most famous/creative/productive

newspaper gossip columns
sections in a newspaper for rumours about famous people

the rumour mill
when gossip is spread

to dry up
work, talent to decrease to zero

time will tell
the result/conclusion can only be seen at a later date in a career

big break
to be discovered and become famous

one trick pony/one hit wonder
able to do only one thing

victim of own success
to have problems because of fame

claim to fame
reason for fame

El personaje britanico – the British character

Excessive Politeness
Politeness is one thing, but the tendency to apologise every time you brush past someone on the street is another.

As pleasant as it is to shout “thank you driver” every time we leave the bus, and spend hours quibbling over who’s going to pay the restaurant bill, our civilities can surpass the limit at times.

Sarcasm
While the use of sarcasm isn’t an exclusively British thing, the subtleness and frequency with which we employ it is what differentiates us from the rest.

Many Brits will apply mockery and irony in everyday conversation almost subconsciously, and it’s something many just don’t get.

Self Mockery
Brits are very good at mocking themselves. We’re continually saying things like “God, I’m an idiot” or “look at the state of me” in everyday conversation, while British comedians are forever inciting laughter about British traditions, at which we are the first to laugh.

Keeping quiet
Harking back to our excessive politeness, British people have a tendency to remain quiet and deal with it when it comes to uncomfortable or unpleasant situations. A good thing, you may think, but it only increases the extent to which we moan about the horror we endured afterwards.

Drinking tea
This is the most common giveaway, especially if a Brit ever finds themselves surrounded by people who only seem to believe in drinking herbal tea. Rather a builder’s brew any day, thanks.

Awkwardness
Only a Brit would avoid getting on a bus purely because they see someone on there who they’ll have to make small talk with, or run from a room the minute they feel uncomfortable.

We so easily feel ‘awkward’, and we dedicate a lot of our lives to trying to escape from these situations.

Boozing
There’s no doubt about it, we are the world’s booziest nation. While Europeans will enjoy a night out on a few glasses and Americans tend to save it for house parties, Brits drink with the sole object of getting wasted, and aren’t afraid to make it a wholly public affair.

Saying things we don’t mean
Brits are often somehow incapable of revealing what we are really thinking. Things like “no offence, but…” and “I’ll bear it in mind” are prime examples of phrases that we often say when we actually mean something very different. The all-too-common “I’m fine” line is another classic lie.

Package Holidays
We love our all-inclusives. Pay one sum of money over the Internet and get the whole lot: flights, seedy hotel, unlimited alcohol and a whole load of other sunburnt Brits to sunbathe, drink and eat too much with. Oh, how cultured we are.

Aversion to PDA
The British struggle with public displays of affection. Fondling lovers are cringy and unwelcome at all times, and the commonplace reaction is to tell them to “get a room” as soon as a couple so much as hugs.