Contrast linkers in English
In spite of / Despite
Link two contrasting ideas. Followed by a noun phrase.
Despite leaving early we missed the train
We enjoyed the holiday in spite of the rain.
Although / (Even) though
Link two contrasting ideas. Followed by a sentence.
Even though many scientists believe in quantum theory, a small group disagree.
However / Nevertheless / Still /Yet / Even so / On the contrary / In contrast to
Introduce a new idea which marks a contrast with previously stated ideas. Introduced by a comma.
In contrast to popular opinion, it seems likely that our extinction is close at hand.
On the one hand … On the other hand.
Links two contrasting ideas / paragraphs.
Link two contrasting ideas. Not separated by commas.
I like boys whereas Pedro likes girls.
Reason and Cause
Because / As / Since / Seeing that
Introduce a concept, idea, rebuff.
Since it is well known that English is an important language, many people study it.
Because of / On account of / Owing to / Due to.
Introduce a noun phrase, consequence.
Flights have been cancelled due to the weather.
In order to / So as to
Introduce an infinitive of purpose/reason.
A questionnaire was created so as to gather opinions.
Consequently / As a consequence / As a result / Therefore / As a consequence of / As a result of – Followed by a noun phrase.
As a consequence of recent weather all local trains have been cancelled.
Moreover / Furthermore / In addition / Besides / What’s more
Used after a strong pause and separated from the sentences. They are introduced by a comma.
Most people dislike politics, what’s more many actively disengage from it.
As well as / In addition to / Besides
Used to add one more piece of information. Followed by a noun phrase.
As well as questioning students, teachers and other members of staff were approached.
For example / For instance
Introduces an example referring to previously stated ideas.
Introduces an example referring to the last idea.
I like lots of types of music, such as rap.